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Apple sugar and acid are the most important traits of apple fruit. Bud sport cultivars can provide abundant research materials for functional gene studies in apple. In this study, using bud sport materials with a rather different sugar and acid flavor, i.e., “Jonathan” and “Sweet Jonathan”, we profiled the whole genome variations and transcriptional regulatory network during fruit developmental stages using whole genome sequencing and RNA-sequencing. Variation analysis identified 4,198,955 SNPs, 319,494 InDels, and 32,434 SVs between the two cultivars. In total, 4313 differentially expressed genes among all of the d 44,399 genes expressed were identified between the two cultivars during fruit development, and functional analysis revealed stress response and signal transduction related genes were enriched. Using 24,047 genes with a more variable expression value, we constructed 28 co-expression modules by weighted correlation network analysis. Deciphering of 14 co-expression modules associated with sugar or acid accumulation during fruit development revealed the hub genes associated with sugar and acid metabolism, e.g., MdDSP4, MdINVE, and MdSTP7. Furthermore, exploration of the intra network of the co-expression module indicated the close relationship between sugar and acid metabolism or sugar and stress. Motif-based sequence analysis of the 17 differentially expressed ATP-binding cassette transporter genes and Yeast one-hybrid assay identified and confirmed a transcription factor, MdBPC6, regulating the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter genes and potentially participating in the apple fruit development or stress response. Collectively, all of the results demonstrated the use of parallel bud mutation sequencing and identified hub genes, and inferred regulatory relationships providing new information about apple fruit sugar and acid accumulation or stress response.
RNA-seq, resequencing, co-expression module, Malus domestica Borkh, sugar, acid, plant stress, fruit development
Parallel Bud Mutation Sequencing Reveals that Fruit Sugar and Acid Metabolism Potentially Influence Stress in Malus
Jirong Zhao,1,2,† Fei Shen,3,† Yuan Gao,1 Dajiang Wang,1 and Kun Wang1,*
The genome of the avian adenovirus Chicken Embryo Lethal Orphan (CELO) has two terminal regions without detectable homology in mammalian adenoviruses that are left without annotation in the initial analysis. Since adenoviruses have been a rich source of new insights into molecular cell biology and practical applications of CELO as gene a delivery vector are being considered, this genome appeared worth revisiting. We conducted a systematic reannotation and in-depth sequence analysis of the CELO genome.
We describe a strongly diverged paralogous cluster including ORF-2, ORF-12, ORF-13, and ORF-14 with an ATPase/helicase domain most likely acquired from adeno-associated parvoviruses. None of these ORFs appear to have retained ATPase/helicase function and alternative functions (e.g. modulation of gene expression during the early life-cycle) must be considered in an adenoviral context. Further, we identified a cluster of three putative type-1-transmembrane glycoproteins with IG-like domains (ORF-9, ORF-10, ORF-11) which are good candidates to substitute for the missing immunomodulatory functions of mammalian adenoviruses. ORF-16 (located directly adjacent) displays distant homology to vertebrate mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases. Members of this family are known to be involved in immuno-regulation and similiar functions during CELO life cycle can be considered for this ORF. Finally, we describe a putative triglyceride lipase (merged ORF-18/19) with additional domains, which can be expected to have specific roles during the infection of birds, since they are unique to avian adenoviruses and Marek’s disease-like viruses, a group of pathogenic avian herpesviruses.
We could characterize most of the previously unassigned ORFs pointing to functions in host-virus interaction. The results provide new directives for rationally designed experiments.
Reannotation of the CELO genome characterizes a set of previously unassigned open reading frames and points to novel modes of host interaction in avian adenoviruses
Stefan Washietl1,2 and Frank Eisenhabercorresponding author1
Vespa mandarinia found in the forests of East Asia, including Korea, occupies the highest rank in the arthropod food web within its geographical range. It serves as a source of nutrition in the form of Vespa amino acid mixture and is listed as a threatened species, although no conservation measures have been implemented. Here, we performed de novo assembly of the V. mandarinia transcriptome by Illumina HiSeq 4000 sequencing. Over 60 million raw reads and 59,184,811 clean reads were obtained. After assembly, a total of 66,837 unigenes were clustered, 40,887, 44,455, and 22,390 of which showed homologous matches against the PANM, Unigene, and KOG databases, respectively. A total of 15,675 unigenes were assigned to Gene Ontology terms, and 5,132 unigenes were mapped to 115 KEGG pathways. The zinc finger domain (C2H2-like), serine/threonine/dual specificity protein kinase domain, and RNA recognition motif domain were among the top InterProScan domains predicted for V. mandarinia sequences. Among the unigenes, we identified 534,922 cDNA simple sequence repeats as potential markers. This is the first transcriptomic analysis of the wasp V. mandarinia using Illumina HiSeq 4000. The obtained datasets should promote the search for new genes to understand the physiological attributes of this wasp.
Transcriptome Profile of the Asian Giant Hornet (Vespa mandarinia) Using Illumina HiSeq 4000 Sequencing: De Novo Assembly, Functional Annotation, and Discovery of SSR Markers
Bharat Bhusan Patnaik, 1 , 2 So Young Park, 1 Se Won Kang, 1 Hee-Ju Hwang, 1 Tae Hun Wang, 1 Eun Bi Park, 1 Jong Min Chung, 1 Dae Kwon Song, 1 Changmu Kim, 3 Soonok Kim, 3 Jae Bong Lee, 4 Heon Cheon Jeong, 5 Hong Seog Park, 6 Yeon Soo Han, 7 and Yong Seok Lee 1 , *