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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widely distributed in various environmental media and have thus attracted extensive attention worldwide. To prevent and control PAH pollution in China, the study of ambient water quality criteria (AWQC), human health risks, and aquatic ecological risk is critical. There are no reports to date on the human health AWQC of PAHs in China. Therefore, this study first derived the human health AWQC values of 12 PAHs based on exposure data and bioaccumulation factor in China. We found that local exposure parameters and other relevant factors were key during the development of AWQC in different countries and regions, which led to differences with the reference value recommended by USEPA. Based on the incremental life time cancer risk (ILCR), hazard quotients (HQ) and potentially affected fraction (PAF) methods, the health and ecological risks of 16 PAHs were assessed subsequently. And the results are as follows: the non-carcinogenic PAHs’ health risks ranged from 1.01 × 10-10 to 1.60 × 10-9, and carcinogenic PAH health risks ranged from 5.03 × 10-7 to 4.74 × 10-5. The toxic effects of 8 PAHs on aquatic organisms exhibited the following order: benzo (a) pyrene (BaP) > anthracene (Ant) > pyrene (Pye) > phenanthrene (Phe) > fluoranthene (Flua) > acenaphthene (Ace) > fluorene (Flu) > naphthalene (Nap). Among these, the ecological risks posed by Ant and BaP were the highest, according to the HQ and PAF methods.
China; Human health ambient water quality criteria; Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Risk assessment; Seven river basins.
Development of human health ambient water quality criteria of 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and risk assessment in China
Jin Chen 1, Bo Fan 1, Ji Li 1, Xiaonan Wang 2, Wenwen Li 3, Liang Cui 1, Zhengtao Liu 4
Vermiremediation, which uses earthworms to remediate polluted soils, is an expanding technology in recently years. Surfactants have been widely used in bioremediation and other remediation technologies. However, the roles of surfactants in vermiremediation have been rarely studied. In this paper, an investigation of the effects of Tween-80 and rhamnolipid surfactant on the fluoranthene fraction distribution, vermiaccumulation, and removal during vermiremediation was conducted. Both Tween-80 and rhamnolipid improved the proportion of the desorbed fraction, bound residual fluoranthene, and correspondingly, proportions of the non-desorbed fraction were reduced. The vermiaccumulation of fluoranthene was significantly elevated by 35-64.1% and 34.5-44.2% by the Tween-80 and rhamnolipid, respectively. The vermiaccumulation of fluoranthene is positively correlated with the proportion of desorbed fraction of fluoranthene. Moreover, Tween-80 and rhamnolipid enhanced the removal of fluoranthene from contaminated soil during vermiremediation by 43.6-189.2% and 14.7-45.6%, respectively. The enhanced removal of fluoranthene was attributed to stimulated microbial degradation and increased vermiaccumulation resulting from the desorption ability of surfactants and earthworm activity. However, the total amount of fluoranthene that accumulated in earthworms was approximately 4-10% of the initial amount in the treatments, which suggested that microbial degradation rather than direct uptake contributed to the fluoranthene removal. The study suggests that the use of surfactants to enhance the efficiency of vermiremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated soils might be feasible, and that surfactants-enhanced vermiremediation is an alternative strategies for treat PAHs contaminated soils.
Bioavailability; Fluoranthene; Fraction distribution; Rhamnolipid; Tween-80; Vermiremediation.
Effects of surfactants on the fractionation, vermiaccumulation, and removal of fluoranthene by earthworms in soil
Zhiming Shi 1, Congying Wang 2, Yonghua Zhao 3
Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organo-chlorinated pesticides (OCPs) were sampled (24 h, Hi-Vol XAD-2) in dry and wet season, and separately analyzed for particulate and gaseous phases. To reveal the influence of rice straw open burning (RSOB), SVOC levels and profiles were comparatively analyzed between two areas, rice plantation area (KL) with intensive RSOB activities and remote national park (KY), and with fresh RSOB smoke. PAHs were significantly higher in KL than KY in both seasons. PAHs levels in KL during burning season were ∼10 times above the wet season indicating RSOB influence. In KY, however, PAHs levels in wet season were 2 times above dry season suggesting impacts of local emission transport. OCPs levels were not statistically different between 2 seasons and between 2 sites in each season. RSOB smoke contained 5880 ng/m3 of 14 PAHs and 13.5 ng/m3 of 16 OCPs which were respectively 14 and 7 times above those in KL during burning period. The 4-ring compounds, most remarkably fluoranthene, and 5-ring (BbF and BaP) were dominant PAHs species in RSOB smoke. Similarity in PAH profiles and diagnostic ratios between KL dry season and RSOB smoke suggested its strong influence on the local air quality. Elevated OCPs levels in RSOB smoke may be associated with re-emission of the compounds accumulated in the paddy soil during the burning. RSOB in Southeast Asia has a serious implication on exposure to the toxic air pollutants hence should be eliminated with priority.
Ambient air levels; OCPs; PAHs; Profile; Rice straw open burning; Southeast Asia.
Influence of rice straw open burning on levels and profiles of semi-volatile organic compounds in ambient air
Aungsiri Tipayarom 1, Nguyen Thi Kim Oanh 2