1-FLUORONAPTHALENE/α-Fluoronaphthalene/1-fluoromaphthalene/1-fluoro-naphthalen/Naphthalene, 1-fluoro-/1-Fluornaphthalen/4-fluoro-l-naphthalene/I-Fluoronaphthalene/1-Flouronaphthalene/1906413/I-Fluornaphthalin/L66J BF/1-Fluoronaphthalene/1-Fluornaftalen/1-FLUORO NAPHTHALENE
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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:321-38-0) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
A simple and precise reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for the determination of 1-fluoronaphthalene and its process-related impurities, 1-aminonaphthalene, 1-nitronaphthalene, naphthalene and 2-fluoronaphthalene. 1-Fluoronaphthalene is the key starting material for the synthesis of duloxetine hydrochloride active pharmaceutical ingredient and is therefore a potential impurity of the API. The determination of the impurity profile is critical for the safety assessment of a substance and manufacturing process thereof. In duloxetine hydrochloride active pharmaceutical ingredient, only 1-fluoronaphthalene is detected and neither of its related impurities of 1-aminonaphthalene, 1-nitronaphthalene, naphthalene and 2-fluoronaphthalene. Chromatography was carried out on a Symmetry C18 (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column, using mobile phase A-a mixture of 0.01 Μ KH2PO4 buffer (pH 2.5 ± 0.1):methanol:acetonitrile in the ratio of 35:52:13 v/v/v and mobile phase B-a mixture of methanol:acetonitrile in the ratio of 80:20 v/v at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The analytes were monitored using photo diode array detector at 230 nm. The proposed method is found to be having linearity in the concentration of 0.075-5.000 μg/mL, 0.150-5.000 μg/mL, 0.3125-5.000 μg/mL and 0.3125-5.000 μg/mL for 1-aminonaphthalene, 1-nitronaphthalene, naphthalene and 2-fluoronaphthalene, respectively, with correlation coefficients of 0.9998, 0.9998, 0.9997 and 0.9997, respectively. The proposed method was validated as per the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The mean recoveries for all the studied impurities are in the range of 90-110%. Due to its specificity, high precision and accuracy, the developed method can be used for the determination of 1-fluoronaphthalene, key starting material for the synthesis of duloxetine hydrochloride API.
A Validated RP-HPLC Method for the Analysis of 1-Fluoronaphthalene and Its Process-Related Impurities
Evrykleia G Karagiannidou 1, Eleni T Bekiari 2, Elli I Vastardi 2
[reaction: see text] Electron-rich dinaphthyl ethers were synthesized by S(N)Ar reactions between naphthols and activated fluoronaphthalenes. 2-tert-Butyl-1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine (Barton’s base) was found to be an excellent, mild alternative to traditional inorganic bases for promoting the coupling reaction.
Synthesis of Highly Oxygenated Dinaphthyl Ethers via SNAr Reactions Promoted by Barton's Base
Peter Wipf 1, Stephen M Lynch
2003 Apr 3
The metabolism of 1-fluoronaphthalene by Cunninghamella elegans ATCC 36112 was studied. The metabolites were isolated by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography and characterized by the application of UV absorption, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectral techniques. C. elegans oxidized 1-fluoronaphthalene predominantly at the 3,4- and 5,6-positions to form trans-3,4-dihydroxy-3,4-dihydro-1-fluoronaphthalene and trans-5,6-dihydroxy-5,6-dihydro-1-fluoronaphthalene. In addition, 1-fluoro-8-hydroxy-5-tetralone, 5-hydroxy-1-fluoronaphthalene, and 4-hydroxy-1-fluoronaphthalene as well as glucoside, sulfate, and glucuronic acid conjugates of these phenols were formed. Circular dichroism spectra of the trans-3,4- and trans-5,6-dihydrodiols formed from 1-fluoronaphthalene indicated that the major enantiomers of the dihydrodiols have S,S absolute stereochemistries. In contrast, the trans-5,6-dihydrodiol formed from 1-fluoronaphthalene from 3-methylcholanthrene-treated rats had Cotton effects that are opposite in sign (R,R) to those formed by C. elegans. The results indicate that the fungal monooxygenase-epoxide hydrolase systems are highly stereoselective in the metabolism of 1-fluoronaphthalene and that a fluoro substituent blocks epoxidation at the fluoro-substituted double bond, decreases oxidation at the aromatic double bond that is peri to the fluoro substituent, and enhances metabolism at the 3,4- and 5,6-positions of 1-fluoronaphthalene.
Effects of a Fluoro Substituent on the Fungal Metabolism of 1-fluoronaphthalene
C E Cerniglia, D W Miller, S K Yang, J P Freeman