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  • Brand : BIOFRON

  • Catalogue Number : BN-O1309

  • Specification : 98%(HPLC)

  • CAS number : 180961-63-1

  • Formula : C28H32O6

  • Molecular Weight : 464.55

  • Volume : 10mg

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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:180961-63-1) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate

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Chemotherapy for advanced cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is largely ineffective; thus innovative combinations of chemotherapeutic agents and natural compounds represent a promising strategy. This study aimed to investigate the synergistic effects of forbesione combined with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in hamster cholangiocarcinoma (Ham-1) cells both in vitro and in vivo. The anti-tumor effects of 5-FU combined with forbesione in vitro were determined using the Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay and the effects in vivo were assessed in transplanted Ham-1 allograph models. Using ethidium bromide/acridine orange (EB/AO) staining, the morphological changes of apoptotic cells was investigated. The expressions of apoptosis-related molecules after combined treatment with forbesione and 5-FU were determined using real-time RT-PCR and western blot analysis. Forbesione or 5-FU alone inhibited proliferation of Ham-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner and their combination showed a synergistic proliferation inhibitory effect in vitro. In vivo studies, forbesione in combination with 5-FU exhibited greater inhibition of the tumor in the hamster model compared with treatment using either drug alone. Forbesione combined with 5-FU exerted stronger apoptotic induction in Ham-1 cells than did single drug treatment. The combination of drugs strongly suppressed the expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and procaspase-3 while enhancing the expression of p53, Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (Apaf-1), caspase-9 and caspase-3, compared with single drug treatments. These results explained the decreased expression of cytokeratin 19 (CK19) positive cells and proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) positive cells in Ham-1 cell tumor tissues of the treated hamsters. There was no apparent systemic toxicity observed in the treated animals compared with the control groups. Forbesione combined with 5-FU strongly induced apoptosis in Ham-1 cells. The growth inhibitory effect of combined treatment using these two drugs was much greater than treatment with either drug alone, both in vitro and in vivo.


Forbesione; 5-fluorouracil; cholangiocarcinoma; synergism; apoptosis


Synergistic Effect of Forbesione From Garcinia hanburyi in Combination with 5-Fluorouracil on Cholangiocarcinoma


Boueroy P1,2,3, Hahnvajanawong C, Boonmars T, Saensa-ard S, Wattanawongdon W, Kongsanthia C, Salao K, Wongwajana S, Anantachoke N, Reutrakul V.

Publish date

2017 Dec 29




Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a malignancy with no effective therapy and poor prognosis. Forbesione, a caged xanthone isolated from Garcinia hanburyi, has been reported to inhibit proliferation and to induce apoptosis in human CCA cell lines. The present study aimed to further explore the potential anticancer properties of forbesione by testing its effects against the hamster CCA cell line Ham-1 in vitro and in vivo. It was observed that forbesione inhibited the growth of Ham-1 cells in vitro and suppressed Ham-1 growth as allograft in hamsters by inducing cell cycle arrest at the S phase. This was mediated by decreasing the protein expression of cyclin E, cyclin A and cyclin-dependent kinase 2. In addition, increased expression of p21 and p27 was detected, which could possibly explain the reduced expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and of the bile duct cell marker cytokeratin 19 observed in forbesione-treated Ham-1 cells in vitro and in tumor tissues of forbesione-treated hamsters. Furthermore, forbesione induced apoptosis through multiple pathways. The death receptor pathway was activated by increased expression of Fas, Fas-associated death domain and activated caspase-3, along with decreased expression of procaspase-8 and procaspase-3. The mitochondrial pathway was driven by increased expression of B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2-like protein 4, activated caspase-9 and inhibitor of κB-α, along with decreased expression of Bcl-2, survivin, procaspase-9 and nuclear factor-κB/p65. The endoplasmic reticulum pathway was stimulated by increased expression of activated caspase-12 and decreased expression of procaspase-12. No side effects or toxicity were observed in forbesione-treated hamsters. Thus, forbesione is a potential drug candidate for cancer therapy that deserves further investigation.


apoptosis; cell cycle arrest; cholangiocarcinoma; forbesione


Antitumor effect of forbesione isolated from Garcinia hanburyi on cholangiocarcinoma in vitro and in vivo.


Boueroy P1, Hahnvajanawong C1, Boonmars T2, Saensa-Ard S1, Anantachoke N3, Vaeteewoottacharn K4, Reutrakul V5.

Publish date

2016 Dec




Chemotherapy for advanced cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is largely ineffective, but innovative combinations of chemotherapeutic agents and natural compounds represent a promising strategy. In our previous studies, isomorellin and forbesione, caged xanthones isolated from Garcinia hanburyi, were found to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in CCA cell lines. The subject of our inquiry is the synergistic effect(s) of these caged xanthones with doxorubicin on growth inhibition and apoptosis induction in human CCA cell lines.

KKU-100, KKU-M139 and KKU-M156 cell lines and Chang cells were treated with either isomorellin or forbesione alone or in combination with doxorubicin. Cell viability was determined using the sulforhodamine B assay. The combined effects of plant compounds with doxorubicin were analyzed using the isobologram and combination index method of Chou-Talalay. Apoptosis was determined by ethidium bromide/acridine orange staining. Protein expressions were determined by Western blot analysis.

Isomorellin or forbesione alone inhibited the growth of these CCA cell lines in a dose-dependent manner and showed selective cytotoxicity against CCA cells but not against Chang cells. Isomorellin/doxorubicin combination showed a synergistic growth inhibitory effect on KKU-M139 and KKU-M156 cells, while the forbesione/doxorubicin combination showed a synergistic growth inhibitory effect on KKU-100 and KKU-M139 cells. The percentages of apoptotic cells were significantly higher in the combined treatments than in the respective single drug treatments. The combined treatments strongly enhanced the expression of Bax/Bcl-2, activated caspase-9 and caspase-3, while suppressing the expression of survivin, procaspase-9 and procaspase-3, compared with single drug treatments. The degree of suppression of NF-κB activation mediated by a decrease in the expression of NF-κB/p65, a reduction of the pIκB-α level and an increase in the IκB-α protein level, was significantly higher in the combined treatment groups than in the single drug treatment groups. The degree of suppression of MRP1 protein expression was also significantly higher in the combined treatment than in the single drug treatment groups.

The combinations of isomorellin/doxorubicin and forbesione/doxorubicin showed significant synergistic effects on the growth inhibition and apoptosis induction in KKU-M156 and KKU-100 cells. Caged xanthones may be useful adjunct treatments with chemotherapy for Opisthorchis viverrini (OV)-associated CCA.


Apoptosis; Doxorubicin; Forbesione; Human cholangiocarcinoma cell lines; Isomorellin; Synergistic effect


Synergistic effects of isomorellin and forbesione with doxorubicin on apoptosis induction in human cholangiocarcinoma cell lines.


Hahnvajanawong C1, Wattanawongdon W1, Chomvarin C1, Anantachoke N2, Kanthawong S3, Sripa B4, Reutrakul V5.

Publish date

2014 Oct 24;

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