This product is isolated and purified from the roots of Rubia cordifolia L.
Methyl 5-hydroxynaphtho[1,2-b]furan-4-carboxylate/Naphtho[1,2-b]furan-4-carboxylic acid, 5-hydroxy-, methyl ester
Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
391.6±22.0 °C at 760 mmHg
HS Code Reference
Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:61658-41-1) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
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The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C44H30O2, contains two independent molecules in which the terminal rings of the terphenyl element are inclined at angles of 36.3 (1) and 22.5 (1)° with respect to the central ring and the dihedral angles between the fluorenyl units are 72.3 (1) and 62.8 (1)°. In the crystal, pairs of O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into inversion dimers. The hydroxy H atoms not involved in these hydrogen bonds form O—H⋯π interactions in which the central terphenyl rings act as acceptors. Weak C—H⋯O contacts and π-π [centroid-centroid distance = 4.088 (2) a] stacking interactions also occur. Taking into account directed non-covalent bonding between the molecules, the crystal is constructed of supramolecular strands extending along the a-axis direction.
Konstantinos Skobridis,a Vassiliki Theodorou,a Georgios Paraskevopoulos,a Wilhelm Seichter,b and Edwin Weberb,*
2013 Oct 1;
Intravenous tranexamic acid (TXA) is an effective adjunct after hemorrhagic shock (HS) due to its antifibrinolytic properties. TXA is also a serine protease inhibitor and recent laboratory data demonstrated that intraluminal TXA into the small bowel inhibited digestive proteases and protected the gut. .ADAM-17 and TNFα are effective sheddases of intestinal syndecan-1 which when shed, exposes the underlying intestinal epithelium to digestive proteases and subsequent systemic insult. We therefore hypothesized that intraluminal TXA as a serine protease inhibitor would reduce intestinal sheddases and syndecan-1 shedding, mitigating gut and distant organ (lung) damage.
Mice underwent 90 minutes of hemorrhagic shock to a mean arterial pressure of 35±5 mm Hg following by the intraluminal administration of TXA or vehicle. After 3 hours, small intestine, lung, and blood were collected for analysis.
Intraluminal TXA significantly reduced gut and lung histopathologic injury and inflammation compared to hemorrhagic shock alone. Gut, lung, and systemic ADAM-17 and TNFα were significantly increased by hemorrhagic shock but lessened by TXA. Additionally, gut and lung syndecan-1 immunostaining were preserved and systemic shedding lessened after TXA. TXA reduced ADAM-17 and TNFα, but not syndecan-1, in TXA-sham animals compared to sham vehicles.
Results of the present study demonstrate a beneficial effect of intraluminal TXA in the gut and lung after experimental hemorrhagic shock in part due to inhibition of the syndecan-1 shedding by ADAM-17 and TNFα. Further studies are needed to determine if orally administered TXA could provide similar intestinal protection and thus be of potential benefit to patients with survivable hemorrhage at risk for organ injury. This is particularly relevant in patients or soldiers who may not have access to timely medical care.
Level of evidence
hemorrhagic shock in mice, oral tranexamic acid, ADAM-17, TNFα, syndecan-1
Intraluminal Tranexamic Acid Inhibits Intestinal Sheddases and Mitigates Gut and Lung Injury and Inflammation in a Rodent Model of Hemorrhagic Shock
Zhanglong Peng, MD, PhD,1 Kechen Ban, PhD,2 Anthony LeBlanc, BS,3 and Rosemary Ann Kozar, MD PhD1
2017 Aug 1.
The transentorhinal cortex (TEC) is an obliquely oriented cortex located in the medial temporal lobe and, together with the entorhinal cortex, is one of the first affected areas in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). One of the most widely accepted hypotheses is that synaptopathy (synaptic alterations and loss) represents the major structural correlate of the cognitive decline observed in AD. However, very few electron microscope (EM) studies are available; the most common method to estimate synaptic density indirectly is by counting, at the light microscopic level, immunoreactive puncta using synaptic markers. To investigate synaptic morphology and possible alterations related to AD, a detailed three-dimensional (3D) ultrastructural analysis using focused ion beam/scanning EM (FIB/SEM) was performed in the neuropil of Layer II of the TEC in human brain samples from non-demented subjects and AD patients. Evaluation of the proportion and shape of asymmetric synapses (AS) and symmetric synapses (SS) targeting spines or dendritic shafts was performed using 3D reconstructions of every synapse. The 3D analysis of 4722 synapses revealed that the preferable targets were spine heads for AS and dendritic shafts for SS, both in control and AD cases. However, in AD patients, we observed a reduction in the percentage of synapses targeting spine heads. Regarding the shape of synapses, in both control cases and AD samples, the vast majority of synapses had a macular shape, followed by perforated or horseshoe-shaped synapses, with fragmented synapses being the least frequent type. Moreover, comparisons showed an increased number of fragmented AS in AD patients.
dementia, dendritic shafts, dendritic spines, FIB/SEM, synaptic morphology
3D Electron Microscopy Study of Synaptic Organization of the Normal Human Transentorhinal Cortex and Its Possible Alterations in Alzheimer’s Disease
M. Dominguez-alvaro,1 M. Montero-Crespo,1,2 L. Blazquez-Llorca,1,3 J. DeFelipe,1,2,4 and L. Alonso-Nanclarescorresponding author1,2,4