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Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito in the world, an important disease vector, and a biting nuisance that limits outdoor activities. Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) is the recommended control strategy. We conducted an economic evaluation of the AW-IPM project in Mercer and Monmouth Counties, New Jersey with a controlled design (AW-IPM vs. control) from 2009 through 2011. The study analyzed financial documents and staff time for AW-IPM and surveyed an average of 415 randomly chosen households in AW-IPM and control areas each fall from 2008 through 2011. Hours lost from yard and porch activities were calculated as differences between actual and potential hours of these activities in an average summer week if there had been no mosquito concerns. Net estimated benefits of AW-IPM were based on cross-over and difference-in-difference analyses. Reductions in hours lost were valued based on respondents’ willingness to pay for a hypothetical extra hour free of mosquitoes spent on yard or porch activities and literature on valuation of a quality adjusted life year (QALY). The incremental cost of AW-IPM per adult was $41.18 per year. Number of hours lost due to mosquitoes in AW-IPM areas between the base year (2008) and the intervention years (2009-2011) declined by 3.30 hours per summer week in AW-IPM areas compared to control areas. Survey respondents valued this improvement at $27.37 per adult per summer week. Over the 13-week summer, an average adult resident gained 42.96 hours of yard and porch time, worth $355.82. The net benefit over the summer was $314.63. With an average of 0.0027 QALYs gained per adult per year, AW-IPM was cost effective at $15,300 per QALY gained. The benefit-cost ratio from hours gained was 8.64, indicating that each $1 spent on AW-IPM gave adults additional porch and yard time worth over $8.
Economic Evaluation of an Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management Program to Control the Asian Tiger Mosquito in New Jersey
Donald S. Shepard, 1 , * Yara A. Halasa, 1 Dina M. Fonseca, 2 Ary Farajollahi, 3 , 4 Sean P. Healy, 5 , 6 Randy Gaugler, 2 Kristen Bartlett-Healy, 2 , 6 Daniel A. Strickman, 7 , 8 and Gary G. Clark 9
Participation in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) football is at an all-time high. This population of athletes experiences a substantial injury burden, with many injuries affecting the upper extremities.
The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of hand and wrist injuries in college football players from the academic years 2009-2010 to 2013-2014. We hypothesized that variables such as event type (practice vs game), mechanism of injury, and player position would have an effect on the injury incidence.
Descriptive epidemiological study.
An epidemiological study utilizing the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program was performed to investigate rates and patterns of hand and wrist injuries in participating varsity football teams from 2009-2010 to 2013-2014.
A total of 725 hand and wrist injuries were captured in 899,225 athlete-exposures. The observed practice injury rate was 0.51 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures, compared with a game injury rate of 3.60 (P < .01). Player-on-player contact was the most common injury mechanism reported, with blocking being the most common activity at the time of injury. Offensive linemen were most likely to experience an injury. Of all injuries sustained, 71.4% resulted in no time loss from competition, whereas 9.8% of injuries resulted in longer than 7 days of time loss. A fracture resulted in the greatest time loss from competition (mean ± SD, 8.3 ± 24.0 days; median, 0 days [range, 0-148 days] for injuries sustained in a practice setting) (mean ± SD, 7.7 ± 15.8 days; median, 0 days [range, 0-87 days] for injuries sustained in a game setting). Conclusion: Hand and wrist injuries were found to be significantly more common in games when compared with practices. This study provides valuable prognostic data regarding expected time loss on a per-injury pattern basis. Further investigation on specific injury subtypes and expected time loss as a result of these injures would provide trainers, players, and coaches with useful information on an expected postinjury recovery and rehabilitation timeline.
athlete, prevention, incidence, surveillance
Epidemiology of Hand and Wrist Injuries in NCAA Men’s Football: 2009-2010 to 2013-2014
Douglas W. Bartels, MD,*† Mario Hevesi, MD,† Cody Wyles, MD,† Jeffrey Macalena, MD,‡ Sanjeev Kakar, MD,† and Aaron J. Krych, MD†
In this article we present an event generator based on the Monte Carlo program powheg in combination with the matrix-element generator recola. We apply it to compute NLO electroweak corrections to same-sign W-boson scattering, which have been shown to be large at the LHC. The event generator allows for the generation of unweighted events including the effect of the NLO electroweak corrections matched to a QED parton shower and interfaced to a QCD parton shower. In view of the expected experimental precision of future measurements, the use of such a tool will be indispensable.
An event generator for same-sign W-boson scattering at the LHC including electroweak corrections
Mauro Chiesa,1 Ansgar Denner,1 Jean-Nicolas Lang,2 and Mathieu Pellencorresponding author3