(E)-3,7-Dimethylocta-2,6-dien-1-ol/Guaniol/3,7-Dimethylocta-2,6-dien-1-ol/2,6-octadien-1-ol, 3,7-dimethyl-/(2E)-3,7-Dimethylocta-2,6-dien-1-ol/Meranol/LEMONOL/trans-3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol/Q2UY1&3UY1&1/(2E)-3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol/GERANIOL 60/GERANIOL 70/3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol/(2E)-3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadienol/GERANIOL 80/2,6-Octadien-1-ol, 3,7-dimethyl-, (2E)-/GERANIOL 90/3,7-dimethyl-trans-2,6-octadien-1-ol/3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienol/Geraniol
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Background: Geraniol is a monoterpene alcohol that has anti-fungal, anti-cancer and anti-nociceptive properties, but its anti-allergic rhinitis (AR) property is unclear.
Methods: In this study, the anti-inflammatory role and its possible mechanisms of geraniol in human mast cell line (HMC-1) cells stimulated by inflammatory trigger phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus A23187 (PMACI), as well as in ovalbumin (OVA)-induced AR mice models were investigated.
Results: PMACI results in a significant increase in the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1β, MCP-1, IL-6 and as well as histamine. Geraniol was found to inhibit both TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 protein and mRNA expressions at concentrations of 40, 80, 160 μM. In OVA-induced AR models, geraniol treatment was able to suppress AR biomarkers (OVA-specific IgE and IL-1β as well as histamine) and nasal rub scores. Interestingly, p38, a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling family, was found to be increasingly hypophosphorylated as geraniol dose was increased. Similar decreases in the nuclear level of p65, a member of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway, were also observed.
Conclusion: Our data highlights that the anti-inflammatory properties of geraniol on AR-related markers in activated HCM-1 cells and OVA-induced AR models may be mediated through the regulation of the MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway.
HMC-1; PMACI; allergic rhinitis; geraniol.
Geraniol Suppresses Proinflammatory Mediators in Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate With A23187-induced HMC-1 Cells
Yue Huang 1 , Xiao-Lin Yang 1 , Yi-Hua Ni 1 , Zheng-Min Xu 1
2018 Sep 11
Dysfunction of autophagy, mitochondrial dynamics and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are currently considered as major contributing factors in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Accumulation of oxidatively damaged cytoplasmic organelles and unfolded proteins in the lumen of the ER causes ER stress and it is associated with dopaminergic cell death in PD. Rotenone is a pesticide that selectively kills dopaminergic neurons by a variety of mechanism, has been implicated in PD. Geraniol (GE; 3,7-dimethylocta-trans-2,6-dien-1-ol) is an acyclic monoterpene alcohol occurring in the essential oils of several aromatic plants. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of GE on rotenone-induced mitochondrial dysfunction dependent oxidative stress leads to cell death in SK-N-SH cells. In addition, we assessed the involvement of GE on rotenone-induced dysfunction in autophagy machinery via α-synuclein accumulation induced ER stress. We found that pre-treatment of GE enhanced cell viability, ameliorated intracellular redox, preserved mitochondrial membrane potential and improves the level of mitochondrial complex-1 in rotenone treated SK-N-SH cells. Furthermore, GE diminishes autophagy flux by reduced autophagy markers, and decreases ER stress by reducing α-synuclein expression in SK-N-SH cells. Our results demonstrate that GE possess its neuroprotective effect via reduced rotenone-induced oxidative stress by enhanced antioxidant status and maintain mitochondrial function. Furthermore, GE reduced ER stress and improved autophagy flux in the neuroblastomal SK-N-SH cells. The present study could suggest that GE a novel therapeutic avenue for clinical intervention in neurodegenerative diseases especially for PD.
Autophagy; Cytoplasmic organelles; Geraniol; Neurodegeneration; Oxidative stress; Parkinson’s disease.
Geraniol Protects Against the Protein and Oxidative Stress Induced by Rotenone in an In Vitro Model of Parkinson's Disease
Karamkolly R Rekha 1 , Ramu Inmozhi Sivakamasundari 2
Geraniol is an acyclic isoprenoid monoterpene isolated from the essential oils of aromatic plants including Cinnamomum tenuipilum, Valeriana officinalis, and several other plants. The limited source of geraniol from plant isolation cannot fulfill the great demand from the flavor and fragrance industries, which require maximizing geraniol production through biotechnology processes. The diverse activities of geraniol suggested that geraniol could treat various diseases as a promising drug candidate. In order to evaluate the potential of geraniol applied in a clinical trial, this review aims at providing a comprehensive summary of the pharmacological effects of geraniol. The publications retrieved from PubMed, ScienceDirect, Springer, and Wiley databases were collected and summarized for the last 6 years. Then, the potential application of geraniol as a drug is discussed based on its pharmacological properties, including antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and antimicrobial activities, and hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective effects. Hence, this review aims at providing evidence of the pharmacological activities of geraniol in the context of further development as a drug candidate in clinical application.
Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Pharmacological Properties of Geraniol - A Review
Yu Lei 1 , Peng Fu 2 , Xie Jun 1 , Peng Cheng 1
Geraniol, an olefinic terpene, was found to inhibit growth of Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.