Ralex/Activol/(1R,2R,5S,8S,9S,10R,12S)-5,12-Dihydroxy-11-methyl-6-methylene-16-oxo-15-oxapentacyclo[188.8.131.52.0.0]heptadec-13-ene-9-carboxylic acid/Maxon/(3S,3aR,4S,4aS,7S,9aR,9bR,12S)-7,12-Dihydroxy-3-methyl-6-methylene-2-oxoperhydro-4a,7-methano-9b,3-propenoazuleno[1,2-b]furan-4-carboxylic acid/Gibbrel/(1S,2S,4aR,4bR,7S,9aS,10S,10aR)-2,7-dihydroxy-1-methyl-8-methylidene-13-oxo-1,2,4b,5,6,7,8,9,10,10a-decahydro-4a,1-(epoxymethano)-7,9a-methanobenzo[a]azulene-10-carboxylic acid/ryzup/(2S,4aR,4bR,7S,9aS,10S,10aR)-2,7-dihydroxy-1-methyl-8-methylidene-13-oxo-1,2,4b,5,6,7,8,9,10,10a-decahydro-4a,1-(epoxymethano)-7,9a-methanobenzo[a]azulene-10-carboxylic acid/Gibberellin X/Gibberelic acid/GIBREL/GA3/GIBBEX/(1S,2S,4aR,4bR,7S,9aS,10S,10aR)-1,2,4b,5,6,7,8,9,10,10a-decahydro-2,7-dihydroxy-1-methyl-8-methylene-13-oxo-4a,1-(epoxymethano)-7,9a-methanobenz[a]azulene-10-carboxylic acid/Gibberellic acid GA3/GIB/pgr-iv/Grocel/GIBERELLIN/Gibberellin A3/(3S,3aR,4S,4aS,6S,8aR,8bR,11S)-6,11-dihydroxy-3-methyl-12-methylene-2-oxo-4a,6-ethano-3,8b-prop-1-enoperhydroindeno[1,2-b]furan-4-carboxylic acid/(1a,2b,4aa,4bb,10b)-2,4a,7-Trihydroxy-1-methyl-8-methylenegibb-3-ene-1,10-dicarboxylic Acid 1,4a-Lactone/gibberellin/UVEX/(3S,3aS,4S,4aS,7S,9aR,9bR,12S)-7,12-dihydroxy-3-methyl-6-methylene-2-oxoperhydro-4a,7-methano-9b,3-propenoazuleno[1,2-b]furan-4-carboxylic acid/4a,1-(Epoxymethano)-7,9a-methanobenz[a]azulene-10-carboxylic acid, 1,2,4b,5,6,7,8,9,10,10a-decahydro-2,7-dihydroxy-1-methyl-8-methylene-13-oxo-, (2S,4aR,4bR,7S,9aS,10S,10aR)-/Gibberellic acid
Gibberellic Acid is named after a fungus Gibberella fujikuroi . Gibberellic Acid regulates processes of plant development and growth, including seed development and germination, stem and root growth, cell division, and flowering time.
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The phytohormone gibberellic acid (GA) has essential signaling functions in multiple processes during plant development. In the “Green Revolution”, breeders developed high-yield rice cultivars that exhibited both semi-dwarfism and altered GA responses, thus improving grain production. Most studies of GA have concentrated on germination and cell elongation, but GA also has a pivotal role in floral organ development, particularly in stamen/anther formation. In rice, GA signaling plays an important role in spikelet fertility; however, the molecular genetic and biochemical mechanisms of GA in male fertility remain largely unknown. Here, we review recent progress in understanding the network of GA signaling and its connection with spikelet fertility, which is tightly associated with grain productivity in cereal crops.
gibberellin signaling; grain productivity; rice; spikelet fertility; stamen/anther development
Gibberellic Acid: A Key Phytohormone for Spikelet Fertility in Rice Grain Production.
Kwon CT1, Paek NC2,3.
2016 May 23
Gibberellic acid (GA3) was added to three types of beer barley, and the chemical changes to GA3 during the beer brewing process were studied using HPLC. The results demonstrated that the GA3 concentration decreased throughout the malting, mashing, and boiling processes and that no GA3 was detected in the congress wort. A new substance, herein called Substance A, was detected by HPLC analysis using a C18 column; this substance exhibited retention characteristics different from GA3. The concentration of Substance A increased throughout the malting, mashing, and boiling processes. Mass spectrometry revealed that Substance A has the same molecular weight as GA3 and nuclear magnetic resonance studies determined that Substance A is a structural isomer of GA3. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study developed a new idea to understand GA3 behavior during the brewing, which provided a practical reference for food safety in beer and other fields using GA3 as a food additive.
© 2019 Institute of Food Technologists®.
HPLC; NMR; brewing; gibberellic acid; isomerization
Isomerization of Gibberellic Acid During the Brewing Process.
Sun W1,2, Liu C1,2, Duan H3, Niu C1,2, Wang J1,2, Zheng F1,2, Li Y1,2, Li Q1,2.
The abscission of plant organs is a phytohormone-controlled process. Our study provides new insight into the involvement of gibberellic acid (GA3) in the functioning of the flower abscission zone (AZ) in yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L.). Physiological studies demonstrated that GA3 stimulated flower abortion. Additionally, this phytohormone was abundantly presented in the AZ cells of naturally abscised flowers, especially in vascular bundles. Interesting interactions among GA3 and other modulators of flower separation were also investigated. GA3 accumulated after treatment with the ethylene (ET) precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). Abscisic acid (ABA) treatment did not cause such an effect. Furthermore, the expression of the newly identified LlGA20ox1 and LlGA2ox1 genes encoding 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases fluctuated after ACC or ABA treatment which confirmed the existence of regulatory crosstalk. GA3 appears to cooperate with the ET precursor in the regulation of AZ function in L. luteus flowers; however, the presented mechanism is ABA-independent.
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Abscission zone; Gibberellins; Lupinus luteus; Phytohormones
Gibberellic acid affects the functioning of the flower abscission zone in Lupinus luteus via cooperation with the ethylene precursor independently of abscisic acid.
Marciniak K1, Kućko A2, Wilmowicz E3, Świdziński M4, Przedniczek K5, Kopcewicz J6.