This product is isolated and purified from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba L.
2-[(10Z)-Heptadec-10-en-1-yl]-6-hydroxybenzoic acid/2-[(10Z)-10-Heptadecen-1-yl]-6-hydroxybenzoic acid/6-[(10Z)-Heptadecenyl]salicylic acid Ginkgolic acid II/Ginkgolic Acid C17:1/Benzoic acid, 2-[(10Z)-10-heptadecen-1-yl]-6-hydroxy-/Ginkgolic acid 17:1
Ginkgolic acids and Ginkgo biloba extract inhibit Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation PUMID/DOI：24457153 International Journal of Food Microbiology Volume 174, 17 March 2014, Pages 47–55 Infection by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC) is a worldwide problem, and there is no effective therapy. Biofilm formation is closely related to EHEC infection and is also a mechanism of antimicrobial resistance. Antibiofilm screening of 560 purified phytochemicals against EHEC showed that ginkgolic acid C15:1 and Ginkgolic acid C17:1 at 5 μg/ml and Ginkgo biloba extract at 100 μg/ml significantly inhibited EHEC biofilm formation on the surfaces of polystyrene and glass, and on nylon membranes.
Methanol; Petroleum ether
499.1±33.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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Cinacalcet is used to treat secondary hyperparathyroidism among hemodialysis patients. Large-scale epidemiologic studies describing patterns of cinacalcet use, effects on parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, and phosphorous levels, and predictors of discontinuation have not been previously reported.
This retrospective cohort study used a clinical database of a large U.S. dialysis provider (2007-2010) merged with administrative data from the United States Renal Data System. Among new users of cinacalcet with Medicare coverage, trends in PTH, calcium, and phosphorus were measured in 30-day intervals following cinacalcet initiation.
Seventeen thousand seven hundred sixty-three eligible initiators contributed 111,047 30-day follow-up intervals. Of these, 56 % discontinued cinacalcet by month 4. Of those discontinuing, 76.3 % reinitiated. Mean values of PTH, calcium, and phosphorus decreased to recommended levels within 4 months following initiation. Proximal PTH levels <150 pg/mL were associated with discontinuation: HR = 1.23 (95 % CI: 1.12, 1.36), whereas low calcium (<7.5 mg/dL) was suggestive of an association, HR = 1.09 (95 % CI 0.91, 1.32). Being in the Part D gap period increased discontinuation risk: HR = 1.09 (95 % CI: 1.03, 1.16). Low-income subsidy status decreased discontinuation risk: HR = 0.77 (95 % CI 0.69, 0.86). Predictors of reinitiation included low-income subsidy, HR = 1.32 (95 % CI 1.22, 1.43); higher albumin level, HR = 1.23 (95 % CI 1.10, 1.36) and higher calcium level, HR = 1.26 (95 % CI 1.19, 1.33). Conclusions Substantial and expected declines in laboratory values occurred following cinacalcet initiation. Early discontinuation and reinitiation of cinacalcet were common and may have occurred for clinical and economic reasons. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12882-015-0174-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Cinacalcet, Secondary hyperparathyroidism, Hemodialysis
Dynamics of cinacalcet use and biochemical control in hemodialysis patients: a retrospective New-user cohort design
B. Diane Reams, Paul J. Dluzniewski, Thy P. Do, Susan V. Yue, Brian D. Bradbury, Abhijit V. Kshirsagar, and M. Alan Brookhartcorresponding author
Ophiuroid systematics is currently in a state of upheaval, with recent molecular estimates fundamentally clashing with traditional, morphology-based classifications. Here, we attempt a long overdue recast of a morphological phylogeny estimate of the Ophiuroidea taking into account latest insights on microstructural features of the arm skeleton. Our final estimate is based on a total of 45 ingroup taxa, including 41 recent species covering the full range of extant ophiuroid higher taxon diversity and 4 fossil species known from exceptionally preserved material, and the Lower Carboniferous Aganaster gregarius as the outgroup. A total of 130 characters were scored directly on specimens. The tree resulting from the Bayesian inference analysis of the full data matrix is reasonably well resolved and well supported, and refutes all previous classifications, with most traditional families discredited as poly- or paraphyletic. In contrast, our tree agrees remarkably well with the latest molecular estimate, thus paving the way towards an integrated new classification of the Ophiuroidea. Among the characters which were qualitatively found to accord best with our tree topology, we selected a list of potential synapomorphies for future formal clade definitions. Furthermore, an analysis with 13 of the ingroup taxa reduced to the lateral arm plate characters produced a tree which was essentially similar to the full dataset tree. This suggests that dissociated lateral arm plates can be analysed in combination with fully known taxa and thus effectively unlocks the extensive record of fossil lateral arm plates for phylogenetic estimates. Finally, the age and position within our tree implies that the ophiuroid crown-group had started to diversify by the Early Triassic.
A New Morphological Phylogeny of the Ophiuroidea (Echinodermata) Accords with Molecular Evidence and Renders Microfossils Accessible for Cladistics
Ben Thuy1,* and Sabine Stohr2,*
The present study investigates pre- and post-implantation developmental competence of nuclear-transferred porcine embryos derived from male and female fetal fibroblasts.
Male and female fetal fibroblasts were transferred to in vitro-matured enucleated oocytes and in vitro and in vivo developmental competence of reconstructed embryos was investigated. And, a total of 6,789 female fibroblast nuclear-transferred embryos were surgically transferred into 41 surrogate gilts and 4,746 male fibroblast nuclear-transferred embryos were surgically transferred into 25 surrogate gilts.
The competence to develop into blastocysts was not significantly different between the sexes. The mean cell number of female and male cloned blastocysts obtained by in vivo culture (143.8±10.5 to 159.2±14.8) was higher than that of in vitro culture of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) groups (31.4±8.3 to 33.4±11.1). After embryo transfer, 5 pregnant gilts from each treatment delivered 15 female and 22 male piglets. The average birth weight of the cloned piglets, gestation length, and the postnatal survival rates were not significantly different (p<0.05) between sexes. Conclusion The present study found that the sex difference of the nuclear donor does not affect the developmental rate of porcine SCNT embryos. Furthermore, postnatal survivability of the cloned piglets was not affected by the sex of the donor cell.
Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer, Pigs, Donor Cells, Sex
Influences of somatic donor cell sex on in vitro and in vivo embryo development following somatic cell nuclear transfer in pigs
Jae-Gyu Yoo,1,a Byeong-Woo Kim,2,a Mi-Rung Park,1 Deug-Nam Kwon,3 Yun-Jung Choi,3 Teak-Soon Shin,2 Byung-Wook Cho,2 Jakyeom Seo,2 Jin-Hoi Kim,3 and Seong-Keun Cho2,*