Ginseng Radix Et Rhizoma
GINSENOSIDE RK2/Ginsenoside Rk1/β-D-Glucopyranoside, (3β,12β)-12-hydroxydammara-20,24-dien-3-yl 2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-/(3β,12β)-12-Hydroxydammara-20,24-dien-3-yl 2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranoside
Ginsenoside Rk1 is a unique component created by processing the ginseng plant (mainly Sung Ginseng, SG) at high temperatures.Ginsenoside Rk1 has anti-inflammatory effect, suppresses the activation of Jak2/Stat3 signaling pathway and NF-κB.Ginsenoside Rk1 has anti-tumor effect, antiplatelet aggregation activities, anti-insulin resistance, nephroprotective effect, antimicrobial effect, cognitive function enhancement, lipid accumulation reduction and prevents osteoporosis.Ginsenoside Rk1 induces cell apoptosis by triggering intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and blocking PI3K/Akt pathway.
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Aspirin, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID), and acetaminophen are commonly used. Frequent use of analgesics has been associated with a higher risk of hearing loss. However, the association between duration of analgesic use and the risk of hearing loss is unclear. We investigated the relationship between duration of analgesic use and self-reported hearing loss among 55,850 women in the Nurses’ Health Study. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to adjust for potential confounders. During 873,376 person-years of follow-up (1990-2012), longer durations of NSAID use (for >6 years of use compared with <1 year, multivariable-adjusted relative risk = 1.10, 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 1.15; P for trend < 0.001) and acetaminophen use (for >6 years of use compared with <1 year, multivariable-adjusted relative risk = 1.09, 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 1.14; P for trend < 0.001) were associated with higher risks of hearing loss. Duration of aspirin use was not associated with hearing loss (for >6 years of use compared with <1 year, multivariable-adjusted relative risk = 1.01, 95% confidence interval: 0.97, 1.05; P for trend = 0.35). In this cohort of women, longer durations of NSAID and acetaminophen use were associated with slightly higher risks of hearing loss, but duration of aspirin use was not. Considering the high prevalence of analgesic use, this may be an important modifiable contributor to hearing loss.
acetaminophen, aspirin, hearing loss, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug
Duration of Analgesic Use and Risk of Hearing Loss in Women
Brian M. Lin,* Sharon G. Curhan, Molin Wang, Roland Eavey, Konstantina M. Stankovic, and Gary C. Curhan
2016 Dec 27
Ginsenoside Rk1 (G-Rk1) is a unique component created by processing the ginseng plant (mainly Sung Ginseng (SG)) at high temperatures. The aim of our study was to systematically review the pharmacological effects of G-Rk1. We utilized and manually searched eight databases to select in vivo and in vitro original studies that provided information about biological, pharmaceutical effects of G-Rk1 and were published up to July 2017 with no restriction on language or study design. Out of the 156 papers identified, we retrieved 28 eligible papers in the first skimming phase of research. Several articles largely described the G-Rk1 anti-cancer activity investigating “cell viability”, “cell proliferation inhibition”, “apoptotic activity”, and “effects of G-Rk1 on G1 phase and autophagy in tumor cells” either alone or in combination with G-Rg5. Others proved that it has antiplatelet aggregation activities, anti-inflammatory effects, anti-insulin resistance, nephroprotective effect, antimicrobial effect, cognitive function enhancement, lipid accumulation reduction and prevents osteoporosis. In conclusion, G-Rk1 has a significant anti-tumor effect on liver cancer, melanoma, lung cancer, cervical cancer, colon cancer, pancreatic cancer, gastric cancer, and breast adenocarcinoma against in vitro cell lines. In vivo experiments are further warranted to confirm these effects.
Clinical pharmacology; Ginsenoside; Rk1; Systematic review
Ginsenoside Rk1 bioactivity: a systematic review.
Elshafay A1, Tinh NX2, Salman S3, Shaheen YS4, Othman EB5, Elhady MT6, Kansakar AR7, Tran L8, Van L2, Hirayama K9, Huy NT10,11.
2017 Nov 17
The saponin ginsenoside Rk1 is a major compound isolated from ginseng. Ginsenoside Rk1 has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor properties and to be involved in the regulation of metabolism. However, the effect and mechanism of anti-inflammatory action of ginsenoside Rk1 has not been fully clarified. We investigated whether ginsenoside Rk1 could suppress the inflammatory response in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and to explore its mechanism of the action. RAW264.7 cells were treated with LPS (1 μg·mL-1) in the absence or the presence of Ginsenoside Rk1 (10, 20, and 40 μmol·L-1). Then the inflammatory factors were tested with Griess reagents, ELISA, and RT-PCR. The proteins were analyzed by Western blotting. Ginsenoside Rk1 inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1. Ginsenoside Rk1 inhibited the lipopolysaccharide-stimulated phosphorylation of NF-κB and janus kinase (Jak)2 and signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat)3 at Ser727 and Tyr705. These data suggested that ginsenoside Rk1 could inhibit expression of inflammatory mediators and suppress inflammation further by blocking activation of NF-κB and the Jak2/Stat3 pathway in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells.
Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ginsenoside Rk1; Inflammation; Jak2/Stat3; NF-κB; RAW264.7 cells
Ginsenoside Rk1 suppresses pro-inflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells by inhibiting the Jak2/Stat3 pathway.
Yu Q1, Zeng KW2, Ma XL2, Jiang Y2, Tu PF3, Wang XM4.