Schisandra chinensis,Maclura tricuspidata
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Specific characteristics of the male Achroia grisella acoustic mating signal determine a male’s attractiveness toward females. These features are genetically variable in populations, and mapping experiments have been used to identify loci contributing to song variation, and understand the evolutionary forces acting on this important sexual trait. Here we built on this foundation and carried out QTL (Quantitative Trait Locus) mapping using >1,000 recombinant individuals, genotyping this large cohort at thousands of sequence-based markers covering the entire collection of 30 A. grisella chromosomes. This dense marker set, coupled with our development of an annotated, draft genome of A. grisella, allowed us to link >3,000 genome scaffolds, >10,000 predicted genes, and close to 275Mb of genome sequence to chromosomes. Our QTL mapping confirmed a fraction of the QTL identified in a previous study, and additionally revealed novel loci. Collectively, QTL explained only small fractions of the phenotypic variance, suggesting many more causative factors remain below the detection threshold of our study. A surprising, and ultimately challenging feature of our study was the low level of intrachromosomal recombination present in our mapping population. This led to difficulty ordering markers along linkage groups, necessitating a chromosome-by-chromosome mapping approach, rather than true interval mapping, and precluded confident ordering/orienting of scaffolds along each chromosome. Nonetheless, our study increased the genomic resources available for the A. grisella system. Enabled by ever more powerful technologies, future investigators will be able to leverage our data to provide more detailed genetic dissection of male song variation in A. grisella.
QTL, male song, genome assembly, genotyping-by-sequencing
Quantitative Genetic Mapping and Genome Assembly in the Lesser Wax Moth Achroia grisella
Boryana S. Koseva,*† Jennifer L. Hackett,‡ Yihong Zhou,† Bethany R. Harris,† John K. Kelly,† Michael D. Greenfield,†§ Jennifer M. Gleason,† and Stuart J. Macdonald‡**,1
Purpose: To determine factors associated with Canadian physiotherapists’ interest in undertaking continuing education in various cardiorespiratory content areas and their willingness to complete a portion of study within each of these content areas via computer-assisted learning (CAL).
Methods: In a six-page mailed questionnaire, 1,426 potential participants were asked to indicate their interest in 11 cardiorespiratory content areas, their continuing-education preferences, and their access and willingness to do continuing education by CAL. Demographic data were also collected from respondents.
Results: Respondents included 285 physiotherapists from cardiorespiratory interest groups (CRGs) and 447 from the licensing bodies’ sample (overall response rate = 56%). Physiotherapists in public employment and practice areas other than orthopaedics had increased interest in all cardiorespiratory content areas except Exercise Physiology. Membership in a CRG increased their likelihood to be willing to learn the cardiorespiratory content area via CAL.
Conclusions: In developing content and determining the accessibility of cardiorespiratory continuing education, educators should consider the type of employer and area of practice of interested attendees as well as the lack of willingness to use CAL by those not involved in CRGs.
computer-assisted learning, physical therapists, continuing education, distance learning, Internet
Factors Associated with Physiotherapists’ Interest in Cardiorespiratory Continuing Education Using Computer-Assisted Learning: A Survey
W. Darlene Reid,corresponding author Susan J. Stanton, and L. Cheryle Kelm
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that play critical roles in regulating post transcriptional gene expression. Gall midges encompass a large group of insects that are of economic importance and also possess fascinating biological traits. The gall midge Mayetiola destructor, commonly known as the Hessian fly, is a destructive pest of wheat and model organism for studying gall midge biology and insect – host plant interactions.
In this study, we systematically analyzed miRNAs from the Hessian fly. Deep-sequencing a Hessian fly larval transcriptome led to the identification of 89 miRNA species that are either identical or very similar to known miRNAs from other insects, and 184 novel miRNAs that have not been reported from other species. A genome-wide search through a draft Hessian fly genome sequence identified a total of 611 putative miRNA-encoding genes based on sequence similarity and the existence of a stem-loop structure for miRNA precursors. Analysis of the 611 putative genes revealed a striking feature: the dramatic expansion of several miRNA gene families. The largest family contained 91 genes that encoded 20 different miRNAs. Microarray analyses revealed the expression of miRNA genes was strictly regulated during Hessian fly larval development and abundance of many miRNA genes were affected by host genotypes.
The identification of a large number of miRNAs for the first time from a gall midge provides a foundation for further studies of miRNA functions in gall midge biology and behavior. The dramatic expansion of identical or similar miRNAs provides a unique system to study functional relations among miRNA iso-genes as well as changes in sequence specificity due to small changes in miRNAs and in their mRNA targets. These results may also facilitate the identification of miRNA genes for potential pest control through transgenic approaches.
Deep sequencing and genome-wide analysis reveals the expansion of MicroRNA genes in the gall midge Mayetiola destructor
Chitvan Khajuria,1,7 Christie E Williams,2 Mustapha El Bouhssini,3 R Jeff Whitworth,1 Stephen Richards,4 Jeffrey J Stuart,5 and Ming-Shun Chencorresponding author1,6,7