This product is isolated and purified from the fruits of Schizandra chinensis
Benzo[3',4']cycloocta[1',2':4,5]benzo[1,2-d][1,3]dioxole, 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,2,3,13-tetramethoxy-6,7-dimethyl-/1beta,4betaH,10betaH-Guaia-5,11-diene/5,11-Guaiadiene/7-Isopropenyl-1,4-dimethyl-1,2,3,3a,4,5,6,7-octahydroazulene/schisandrin B/(-)-gomisin/(3R,6R,7R,10R)-6,10-DIMETHYL-3-ISOPROPENYL-BICYCLO[5.3.0]DEC-1-ENE/(-)-gomisin N/1,2,3,13-Tetramethoxy-6,7-dimethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobenzo[3',4']cycloocta[1',2':4,5]benzo[1,2-d][1,3]dioxole/[1R-(1alpha,3abeta,4alpha,7beta)]-1,2,3,3a,4,5,6,7-octahydro-7-isopropenyl-1,4-dimethylazulene
Gomisin N in the herbal drug gomishi (Schisandra chinensis) suppresses inducible nitric oxide synthase gene via C/EBPβ and NF-κB in rat hepatocytes.[Pubmed: 23085209]Nitric Oxide. 2013 Jan 15;28:47-56. Gomishi is the dried fruit of Schisandra chinensis Baillon (Fructus Schisandrae chinensis, FSC) and has been used in Japanese Kampo medicine to treat inflammatory and liver diseases. However, it is unclear which constituent of FSC is primarily responsible for its pharmacological effects. FSC was extracted with methanol, fractionated by hydrophobicity, and further purified. METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured the effects of each fraction or constituent thereof on the induction of the inflammatory mediator nitric oxide (NO), which was induced by interleukin 1β in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. The hydrophobic fraction markedly suppressed NO induction and reduced the expression of inducible nitric oxide syntheses (iNOS) in interleukin 1β-treated hepatocytes. Gomisin N and γ-schizandrin, two major constituents of the hydrophobic fraction, significantly reduced NO production and the levels of the iNOS protein, mRNA, and antisense transcript. Gomisin N and γ-schizandrin also decreased the transcription of interleukin 1β and inflammatory chemokines. The overexpression of the p65 subunit of nuclear factor κB or CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β increased the promoter activity of the iNOS gene in the firefly luciferase assay, whereas Gomisin N decreased the promoter activity. CONCLUSIONS: The anti-inflammatory activity of FSC and its constituents were analysed, and we demonstrated that Gomisin N and γ-schizandrin are involved in the hepatoprotective effect of the FSC extract, which has therapeutic potential for liver disease.
Methanol; Acetontrile; DMSO
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Gomisin N, which is a lignan isolated from Schisandra chinensis, has some pharmacological effects. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of gomisin N on periodontal disease are uncertain. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of gomisin N on inflammatory mediator production in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-stimulated human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLC). Gomisin N inhibited interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, CC chemokine ligand (CCL) 2, and CCL20 production in TNF-α-stimulated HPDLC in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, we revealed that gomisin N could suppress extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation in TNF-α-stimulated HPDLC though protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation was not suppressed by gomisin N treatment. In summary, gomisin N might exert anti-inflammatory effects by attenuating cytokine production in periodontal ligament cells via inhibiting the TNF-α-stimulated ERK and JNK pathways activation.
MAPKs; gomisin N; inflammatory cytokine; periodontal ligament cells
Gomisin N Decreases Inflammatory Cytokine Production in Human Periodontal Ligament Cells.
Hosokawa Y1, Hosokawa I2, Shindo S2, Ozaki K3, Matsuo T2.
Gomisin N, one of the lignan compounds found in Schisandra chinensis has been shown to possess anti-oxidative, anti-tumorigenic, and anti-inflammatory activities in various studies. Here we report, for the first time, the anti-melenogenic efficacy of Gomisin N in mammalian cells as well as in zebrafish embryos. Gomisin N significantly reduced the melanin content without cellular toxicity. Although it was not capable of modulating the catalytic activity of mushroom tyrosinase in vitro, Gomisin N downregulated the expression levels of key proteins that function in melanogenesis. Gomisin N downregulated melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), adenylyl cyclase 2, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1), and tyrosinase-related protein-2 (TRP-2). In addition, Gomisin N-treated Melan-A cells exhibited increased p-Akt and p-ERK levels, which implies that the activation of the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK pathways may function to inhibit melanogenesis. We also validated that Gomisin N reduced melanin production by repressing the expression of MITF, tyrosinase, TRP-1, and TRP-2 in mouse and human cells as well as in developing zebrafish embryos. Collectively, we conclude that Gomisin N inhibits melanin synthesis by repressing the expression of MITF and melanogenic enzymes, probably through modulating the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK pathways.
Gomisin N; Schisandra chinensis; lignan; melanogenesis; skin whitening
Gomisin N Inhibits Melanogenesis through Regulating the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK Signaling Pathways in Melanocytes.
Chae JK1, Subedi L2, Jeong M3, Park YU4, Kim CY5, Kim H6, Kim SY7,8,9.
2017 Feb 22
Gomisin N (GN), a lignan derived from Schisandra chinensis, has been shown to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of GN against ethanol-induced liver injury using in vivo and in vitro experiments. Histopathological examination revealed that GN administration to chronic-binge ethanol exposure mice significantly reduced ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis through reducing lipogenesis gene expression and increasing fatty acid oxidation gene expression, and prevented liver injury by lowering the serum levels of aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase. Further, it significantly inhibited cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) gene expression and enzyme activity, and enhanced antioxidant genes and glutathione level in hepatic tissues, which led to decreased hepatic malondialdehyde levels. It also lowered inflammation gene expression. Finally, GN administration promoted hepatic sirtuin1 (SIRT1)-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling in ethanol-fed mice. Consistent with in vivo data, treatment with GN decreased lipogenesis gene expression and increased fatty acid oxidation gene expression in ethanol-treated HepG2 cells, thereby preventing ethanol-induced triglyceride accumulation. Furthermore, it inhibited reactive oxygen species generation by downregulating CYP2E1 and upregulating antioxidant gene expression, and suppressed inflammatory gene expression. Moreover, GN prevented ethanol-mediated reduction in SIRT1 and phosphorylated AMPK. These findings indicate that GN has therapeutic potential against alcoholic liver disease through inhibiting hepatic steatosis, oxidative stress and inflammation.
AMP-activated protein kinase; alcoholic liver disease; cytochrome P450 2E1; gomisin N; hepatic steatosis; oxidative stress; sirtuin1
Gomisin N Alleviates Ethanol-Induced Liver Injury through Ameliorating Lipid Metabolism and Oxidative Stress.
Nagappan A1,2, Jung DY3,4, Kim JH5,6, Lee H7, Jung MH8,9.
2018 Sep 1