seeds of Gossypium herbaceum L.
aceticacidgossypol/[2,2'-Binaphthalene]-8,8'-dicarboxaldehyde, 1,1',6,6',7,7'-hexahydroxy-3,3'-dimethyl-5,5'-bis(1-methylethyl)-, compd. with acetic acid (1:1)/1,1',6,6',7,7'-Hexahydroxy-5,5'-diisopropyl-3,3'-dimethyl-2,2'-binaphthalene-8,8'-dicarbaldehyde - acetic acid (1:1)/Acetate gossypol/GOSSYPOLACETATE(GOSSYPOL-ACETICACID)/GOSSYPOL ACETATE/Gossypolaceticacidcomplex/GOSSYPOL ACETATE(RG)/1,1',6,6',7,7'-Hexahydroxy-3,3'-dimethyl-5,5'-bis(1-methylethyl)[2,2'-binaphthalene]-8,8'-dicarboxaldehyde-acetic acid/GOSSYPOLMONOACETICACID/Gossypol (acetic acid)
Methanol; Chloroform; DMSO
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Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a poorly curable disease due to its profound chemoresistance. Despite recent advances in surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the efficient treatment of GBMs is still a clinical challenge. Beside others, AT101, the R-(-) enantiomer of gossypol, and demethoxycurcumin (DMC), a curcumin-related demethoxy compound derived from Curcuma longa, were considered as possible alternative drugs for GBM therapy.
Using different human primary GBM cell cultures in a long-term stimulation in vitro model, the cytotoxic and anti-proliferative effects of single and combined treatment with 5 µM AT101 and 5 µM or 10 µM DMC were investigated. Furthermore, western blots on pAkt and pp44/42 as well as JC-1 staining and real-time RT-PCR were performed to understand the influence of the treatment at the molecular and gene level.
Due to enhanced anti-proliferative effects, we showed that combined therapy with both drugs was superior to a single treatment with AT101 or DMC. Here, by determination of the combination index, a synergism of the combined drugs was detectable. Phosphorylation and thereby activation of the kinases p44/42 and Akt, which are involved in proliferation and survival processes, were inhibited, the mitochondrial membrane potential of the GBM cells was altered, and genes involved in dormancy-associated processes were regulated by the combined treatment strategy.
Combined treatment with different drugs might be an option to efficiently overcome chemoresistance of GBM cells in a long-term treatment strategy.
AT101; Cytotoxicity; Demethoxycurcumin; Glioblastoma; Proliferation
Combined treatment of AT101 and demethoxycurcumin yields an enhanced anti-proliferative effect in human primary glioblastoma cells.
Mehner M1, Kubelt C1, Adamski V1, Schmitt C2, Synowitz M1, Held-Feindt J3.
“Gossypol is a yellow polyphenol isolated from cotton seeds. It has the antitumor activity and it is being tested to treat prostate cancer. However, its underlying mechanisms are still not well understood. The present study investigated the inhibitory effects of gossypol acetate on rat 5α-reductase 1, 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and retinol dehydrogenase 2 for androgen metabolism. Rat 5α-reductase 1, 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and retinol dehydrogenase 2 were expressed in COS-1 cells. Immature Leydig cells that contain these enzymes were isolated from 35-day-old male Sprague Dawley rats. The potency and mode of action of gossypol acetate to inhibit these enzymes in both enzyme-expressed preparations and immature Leydig cells were examined. Molecular docking study of gossypol on the crystal structure of 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase was performed. Gossypol acetate inhibited 5α-reductase 1 and 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase with IC50 values of 3.33 ± 0.07 and 0.52 ± 0.06 × 10-6 M in the expressed enzymes as well as 8.512 ± 0.079 and 1.032 ± 0.068 × 10-6 M in intact rat immature Leydig cells, respectively. Gossypol acetate inhibited rat 5α-reductase 1 in a noncompetitive mode and 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in a mixed mode when steroid substrates were supplied. Gossypol acetate weakly inhibited retinol dehydrogenase 2 with IC50 value over 1 × 10-4 M. Molecular docking analysis showed that gossypol partially bound to the steroid-binding site of the crystal structure of rat 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Gossypol acetate is a potent inhibitor of rat 5α-reductase 1 and 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, possibly inhibiting the formation of androgen in the prostate cancer cells.
Copyright © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase; 5α-reductase 1; Gossypol; Mode of action; Retinol dehydrogenase 2
Gossypol inhibits 5α-reductase 1 and 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase: Its possible use for the treatment of prostate cancer.
Cao S1, Wang G2, Ge F2, Li X3, Zhu Q3, Ge RS4, Wang Y5.
“The present study explored the effects of dietary gossypol on the gut health of on-growing grass carp. The fish were fed six diets containing different levels of free gossypol (0, 121.38, 243.94, 363.89, 759.93 and 1162.06 mg/kg diet) from gossypol-acetic acid for 60 days and then challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila for 14 days. The results showed that dietary gossypol (1) could aggravate enteritis and damage the structure of intestinal epithelial cells, (2) decreased the lysozyme (LZ) and Acid phosphatase (ACP) activities, complement 3 (C3), C4 and immunoglobulin M (IgM) contents, and it down-regulated the Hepcidin (rather than distal intestine (DI)), immunoglobulin Z (IgZ), liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide (LEAP)-2B, Mucin2 and β-defensin-1 mRNA levels in the proximal intestine (PI), mid intestine (MI) and DI, (3) up-regulated intestinal pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interferon γ2 (IFN-γ2), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6 (only in PI), IL-8 and IL-12p35 mRNA levels partly related to nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signalling, and (4) down-regulated the mRNA levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, TGF-β2, interleukin 4/13A (IL-4/13A) (except IL-4/13B), IL-10 and IL-11 partly relating to target of rapamycin (TOR) signalling in the intestines of on-growing grass carp. Moreover, the dietary gossypol had no impact on the LEAP-2A, IL-12P40, IL-17D, IL-10, NF-κBp52, IKKα and eIF4E-binding proteins 2 (4E-BP2) mRNA levels in the intestines. Finally, based on the intestinal histopathological results, enteritis morbidity, LZ activity and IgM content, the safe dose of gossypol in the diets for on-growing grass carp should be less than 103.42 mg/kg diet.
Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.”
Gossypol; Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella); Intestinal immunity; NF-κB signalling; TOR signalling
Dietary gossypol reduced intestinal immunity and aggravated inflammation in on-growing grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).
Wang KZ1, Feng L2, Jiang WD2, Wu P2, Liu Y2, Jiang J1, Kuang SY3, Tang L3, Zhang YA4, Zhou XQ5.
Gossypol, a natural product isolated from cottonseeds and roots, binds to Bcl-xL protein and Bcl-2 protein with Kis of 0.5-0.6 μM and 0.2-0.3 mM, respectively.