Momordica grosvenorii and Siraitia siamensis; Luohanguo
The Gastrointestinal Tract Metabolism and Pharmacological Activities of Grosvenorine, a Major and Characteristic Flavonoid in the Fruits of Siraitia grosvenorii. PUMID/DOI：26567944 Chem Biodivers. 2015 Nov;12(11):1652-64. Grosvenorine is the major flavonoid compound of the fruits of Siraitia grosvenorii (Swingle) C. Jeffrey, a medical plant endemic to China. In the present study, for the first time, the Grosvenorine metabolism in an in vitro simulated human gastrointestinal tract (including artificial gastric juice, artificial intestinal juice and intestinal flora), as well as its pharmacological activities (including anti-complement, antibacterial and antioxidant activities), was investigated. The results showed that Grosvenorine was metabolized by human intestinal flora; its four metabolites were isolated by semi-preparative HPLC and identified by NMR as kaempferitrin, afzelin, α-rhamnoisorobin, and kaempferol. Further pharmacological evaluation showed that Grosvenorine exhibited good antibacterial and antioxidant activities, with its metabolites possessing more potent activities. Although Grosvenorine did not present obvious anticomplement activity, its metabolites showed interesting activities. This study revealed that intestinal bacteria play an important role in the gastrointestinal metabolism of Grosvenorine and significantly affect its pharmacological activities.
Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
1067.8±65.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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We explored tobacco use across federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) and compared data on state-level tobacco use between FQHC patients and the general population. We used data from the Uniform Data System (UDS) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to generate estimates of 2013 prevalence of tobacco use among adults aged 18 years or older. According to UDS data, the overall prevalence of tobacco use was 25.8% in FQHCs compared with 20.6% in the general population represented by BRFSS data, an average of 5.2 percentage points (range, −4.9 to 20.9) higher among FQHCs. Among FQHCs, the burden of tobacco use and the opportunity for offering cessation assistance is substantial.
The Prevalence of Tobacco Use at Federally Qualified Health Centers in the United States, 2013
Susan A. Flocke, PhD,corresponding author 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 Richard Hoffman, MD, 5 Jan M. Eberth, MSPH, PhD, 6 Hyunyong Park, PhD, 1 , 3 Genevieve Birkby, MPH, 1 , 2 Erika Trapl, PhD, 2 , 3 , 4 and Steve Zeliadt, PhD 7
Several eukaryotic parasites form cysts that transmit infection. The process is found in diverse organisms such as Toxoplasma, Giardia, and nematodes. In Entamoeba histolytica this process cannot be induced in vitro, making it difficult to study. In Entamoeba invadens, stage conversion can be induced, but its utility as a model system to study developmental biology has been limited by a lack of genomic resources. We carried out genome and transcriptome sequencing of E. invadens to identify molecular processes involved in stage conversion.
We report the sequencing and assembly of the E. invadens genome and use whole transcriptome sequencing to characterize changes in gene expression during encystation and excystation. The E. invadens genome is larger than that of E. histolytica, apparently largely due to expansion of intergenic regions; overall gene number and the machinery for gene regulation are conserved between the species. Over half the genes are regulated during the switch between morphological forms and a key signaling molecule, phospholipase D, appears to regulate encystation. We provide evidence for the occurrence of meiosis during encystation, suggesting that stage conversion may play a key role in recombination between strains.
Our analysis demonstrates that a number of core processes are common to encystation between distantly related parasites, including meiosis, lipid signaling and RNA modification. These data provide a foundation for understanding the developmental cascade in the important human pathogen E. histolytica and highlight conserved processes more widely relevant in enteric pathogens.
The genome and transcriptome of the enteric parasite Entamoeba invadens, a model for encystation
Gretchen M Ehrenkaufer,#1 Gareth D Weedall,#2 Daryl Williams,2 Hernan A Lorenzi,3 Elisabet Caler,3 Neil Hall,corresponding author#2,4 and Upinder Singhcorresponding author#1,5
Restrictions on staple or cash crop exports are frequently imposed in developing countries to promote food security or industrial development. By diverting production to local markets, these policies tend to reduce prices and increase domestic supply of food or intermediate inputs in the short term, to the benefit of consumers or manufacturers, which make them attractive to policymakers. However, in the long term, export restrictions discourage agricultural production, which may ultimately negate the short-term gains. This study assesses the economy-wide effects of Malawi’s long-term maize export ban, which was only recently lifted, and a proposed oilseed export levy intended to improve food security and support local processing industries, respectively. We find that maize export bans only benefit the urban non-poor, while poor farmers’ incomes and maize consumption levels decline in the longer run. The oilseed export levy also fails to achieve its long run objectives: even when tax revenues are used to further subsidize food processors, their gains in value-addition are outweighed by declining agricultural value-addition. More generally, these results show that while export restrictions may have the desired outcomes in the short run, production responses may render the policies ineffective in the medium to long run. Ultimately, such restrictive policies reinforce a subsistence approach to agriculture, which is inconsistent with the stated economic transformation goals of many Sub-Saharan African countries.
Malawi, Export restrictions, Trade policy, CGE modelling
Achieving food security and industrial development in Malawi: Are export restrictions the solution?
Emerta Aragie,a Karl Pauw,b,⁎ and Valentina Pernechelea