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Gymnemagenin

$1,143

  • Brand : BIOFRON

  • Catalogue Number : BD-P0107

  • Specification : 95.0%(HPLC)

  • CAS number : 22467-07-8

  • Formula : C30H50O6

  • Molecular Weight : 506.71

  • PUBCHEM ID : 10051937

  • Volume : 500mg

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Catalogue Number

BD-P0107

Analysis Method

HPLC,NMR,MS

Specification

95.0%(HPLC)

Storage

2-8°C

Molecular Weight

506.71

Appearance

Powder

Botanical Source

Structure Type

Triterpenoids

Category

SMILES

CC1(CC2C3=CCC4C5(CCC(C(C5CCC4(C3(CC(C2(C(C1O)O)CO)O)C)C)(C)CO)O)C)C

Synonyms

(3R,4R,4aR,5S,6aR,6aS,6bR,8aR,9R,10S,12aR,14bS)-4a,9-bis(hydroxymethyl)-2,2,6a,6b,9,12a-hexamethyl-1,3,4,5,6,6a,7,8,8a,10,11,12,13,14b-tetradecahydropicene-3,4,5,10-tetrol

IUPAC Name

(3R,4R,4aR,5S,6aR,6aS,6bR,8aR,9R,10S,12aR,14bS)-4a,9-bis(hydroxymethyl)-2,2,6a,6b,9,12a-hexamethyl-1,3,4,5,6,6a,7,8,8a,10,11,12,13,14b-tetradecahydropicene-3,4,5,10-tetrol

Applications

Density

1.2±0.1 g/cm3

Solubility

Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.

Flash Point

262.0±26.1 °C

Boiling Point

634.5±55.0 °C at 760 mmHg

Melting Point

330-331℃

InChl

InChI=1S/C30H50O6/c1-25(2)13-18-17-7-8-20-26(3)11-10-21(33)27(4,15-31)19(26)9-12-28(20,5)29(17,6)14-22(34)30(18,16-32)24(36)23(25)35/h7,18-24,31-36H,8-16H2,1-6H3/t18-,19+,20+,21-,22-,23-,24-,26-,27-,28+,29+,30-/m0/s1

InChl Key

VKJLHZZPVLQJKG-ABHKXHSUSA-N

WGK Germany

RID/ADR

HS Code Reference

2938900000

Personal Projective Equipment

Correct Usage

For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.

Meta Tag

provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:22467-07-8) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate

No Technical Documents Available For This Product.

PMID

21059191

Abstract

Background
Previous studies have reported conflicting results for the comparative doses of recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (rFSH) and highly purified human menopausal gonadotrophin (hMG-HP) required per cycle of in vitro fertilisation (IVF); the aim of this study was to determine the average total usage of rFSH versus hMG-HP in a ‘real-world’ setting using routine clinical practice.

Methods
This retrospective chart review of databases from four European countries investigated gonadotrophin usage, oocyte and embryo yield, and pregnancy outcomes in IVF cycles (± intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection) using rFSH or hMG-HP alone. Included patients met the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guideline criteria for IVF and received either rFSH or hMG-HP. Statistical tests were conducted at 5% significance using Chi-square or t-tests.

Results
Of 30,630 IVF cycles included in this review, 74% used rFSH and 26% used hMG-HP. A significantly lower drug usage per cycle for rFSH than hMG-HP (2072.53 +/- 76.73 IU vs. 2540.14 +/- 883.08 IU, 22.6% higher for hMG-HP; p < 0.01) was demonstrated. The median starting dose was also significantly lower for rFSH than for hMG-HP (150 IU vs. 225 IU, 50% higher for hMG-HP, p < 0.01). The average oocyte yield per IVF cycle in patients treated with rFSH was significantly greater than with hMG-HP (10.80 +/- 6.02 vs. 9.77 +/- 5.53; p < 0.01), as was the average mature oocyte yield (8.58 +/- 5.27 vs. 7.72 +/- 4.59; p < 0.01). No significant differences were observed in pregnancy outcomes including spontaneous abortion between the two treatments. There was a significantly higher rate of OHSS (all grades) with rFSH (18.92% vs. 14.09%; p < 0.0001). The hospitalisation rate due to OHSS was low but significantly higher in the rFSH group (1.07% of cycles started vs. 0.67% of cycles started with rFSH and hMG-HP, respectively; p = 0.002). Conclusions Based on these results, IVF treatment cycles with rFSH yield statistically more oocytes (and more mature oocytes), using significantly less IU per cycle, versus hMG-HP. The incidence of all OHSS and hospitalisations due to OHSS was significantly higher in the rFSH cycles compared to the hMG-HP cycles. However, the absolute incidence of hospitalisations due to OHSS was similar to that reported previously. These results suggest that the perceived required dosage with rFSH is currently over-estimated, and the higher unit cost of rFSH may be offset by a lower required dosage compared with hMG-HP.

Title

In vitro fertilisation with recombinant follicle stimulating hormone requires less IU usage compared with highly purified human menopausal gonadotrophin: results from a European retrospective observational chart review

Author

Geoffrey H Trew,1 Adam P Brown,2 Samantha Gillard,3 Stuart Blackmore,4 Christine Clewlow,corresponding author5 Paul O'Donohoe,6 and Radoslaw Wasiak6

Publish date

2010

PMID

26402664

Abstract

Three types of ent-kaurane diterpenoids were isolated from the aerial parts of Isodon excisoides, including three new diterpenoids, 1α,7α,14β-trihydroxy-20-acetoxy-ent-kaur-15-one (1); 1α,7α,14β,18-tetrahydroxy-20-acetoxy-ent-kaur-15-one (2); and 1α-acetoxy-14β-hydroxy-7α,20-epoxy-ent-kaur-16-en-15-one (3); together with six known diterpenes henryin (4); kamebanin (5); reniformin C (6); kamebacetal A (7); kamebacetal B (8); and oridonin (9). The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by means of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry in conjunction with published data for their analogs, as well as their fragmentation patterns. Compounds 5 and 9 were isolated from Isodon excisoides for the first time. To explore the structure-activity relationships of the isolated compounds, they were tested for their cytotoxic effects against five human cancer cell lines: HCT-116, HepG2, A2780, NCI-H1650, and BGC-823. Most of the isolated compounds showed certain cytotoxic activity against the five cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 1.09-8.53 µM. Among the tested compounds, compound 4 exhibited the strongest cytotoxic activity in the tested cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 1.31-2.07 µM. Compounds 1, 6, and 7 exhibited selective cytotoxic activity.

KEYWORDS

Three types of ent-kaurane diterpenoids were isolated from the aerial parts of Isodon excisoides, including three new diterpenoids, 1α,7α,14β-trihydroxy-20-acetoxy-ent-kaur-15-one (1); 1α,7α,14β,18-tetrahydroxy-20-acetoxy-ent-kaur-15-one (2); and 1α-acetoxy-14β-hydroxy-7α,20-epoxy-ent-kaur-16-en-15-one (3); together with six known diterpenes henryin (4); kamebanin (5); reniformin C (6); kamebacetal A (7); kamebacetal B (8); and oridonin (9). The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by means of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry in conjunction with published data for their analogs, as well as their fragmentation patterns. Compounds 5 and 9 were isolated from Isodon excisoides for the first time. To explore the structure-activity relationships of the isolated compounds, they were tested for their cytotoxic effects against five human cancer cell lines: HCT-116, HepG2, A2780, NCI-H1650, and BGC-823. Most of the isolated compounds showed certain cytotoxic activity against the five cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 1.09-8.53 µM. Among the tested compounds, compound 4 exhibited the strongest cytotoxic activity in the tested cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 1.31-2.07 µM. Compounds 1, 6, and 7 exhibited selective cytotoxic activity.

Title

Three New Cytotoxic ent-Kaurane Diterpenes from Isodon excisoides

Author

Li-Ping Dai,1,2,3 Chun Li,2,4 Han-Ze Yang,5 Yan-Qing Lu,1,2 Hong-Yan Yu,6 Hui-Min Gao,2,5 and Zhi-Min Wang2,5,* Thomas J. Schmidt, Academic Editor

Publish date

2015 Sep

PMID

27093615

Abstract

Background
Underweight patients are at higher risk of death after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) than normal weight patients; however, it is unclear whether this relationship is explained by confounding due to cachexia or other factors associated with low body mass index (BMI). This study aimed to answer two questions: (1) does comprehensive risk adjustment for comorbid illness and frailty measures explain the higher mortality after AMI in underweight patients, and (2) is the relationship between underweight and mortality also observed in patients with AMI who are otherwise without significant chronic illness and are presumably free of cachexia?

Methods and Findings
We analyzed data from the Cooperative Cardiovascular Project, a cohort-based study of Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized for AMI between January 1994 and February 1996 with 17 y of follow-up and detailed clinical information to compare short- and long-term mortality in underweight and normal weight patients (n = 57,574). We used Cox proportional hazards regression to investigate the association of low BMI with 30-d, 1-y, 5-y, and 17-y mortality after AMI while adjusting for patient comorbidities, frailty measures, and laboratory markers of nutritional status. We also repeated the analyses in a subset of patients without significant comorbidity or frailty.

Of the 57,574 patients with AMI included in this cohort, 5,678 (9.8%) were underweight and 51,896 (90.2%) were normal weight at baseline. Underweight patients were older, on average, than normal weight patients and had a higher prevalence of most comorbidities and measures of frailty. Crude mortality was significantly higher for underweight patients than normal weight patients at 30 d (25.2% versus 16.4%, p < 0.001), 1 y (51.3% versus 33.8%, p < 0.001), 5 y (79.2% versus 59.4%, p < 0.001), and 17 y (98.3% versus 94.0%, p < 0.001). After adjustment, underweight patients had a 13% higher risk of 30-d death and a 26% higher risk of 17-y death than normal weight patients (30-d hazard ratio [HR] 1.13, 95% CI 1.07-1.20; 17-y HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.23-1.30). Survival curves for underweight and normal weight patients separated early and remained separate over 17 y, suggesting that underweight patients remained at a significant survival disadvantage over time. Similar findings were observed among the subset of patients without comorbidity at baseline. Underweight patients without comorbidity had a 30-d adjusted mortality similar to that of normal weight patients but a 21% higher risk of death over the long term (30-d HR 1.08, 95% CI 0.93-1.26; 17-y HR 1.21, 95% CI 1.14-1.29). The adverse effects of low BMI were greatest in patients with very low BMIs. The major limitation of this study was the use of surrogate markers of frailty and comorbid conditions to identify patients at highest risk for cachexia rather than clear diagnostic criteria for cachexia. Conclusions Underweight BMI is an important risk factor for mortality after AMI, independent of confounding by comorbidities, frailty measures, and laboratory markers of nutritional status. Strategies to promote weight gain in underweight patients after AMI are worthy of testing.

Title

Underweight, Markers of Cachexia, and Mortality in Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Prospective Cohort Study of Elderly Medicare Beneficiaries

Author

Emily M. Bucholz, 1 , 2 Hannah A Krumholz, 3 and Harlan M. Krumholz 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 ,* Sanjay Basu, Academic Editor

Publish date

2016 Apr