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Activity-regulated genes (ARGs) are important for neuronal functions like long-term memory and are well-characterized in mammals but poorly studied in other model organisms like Drosophila. Here we stimulated fly neurons with different paradigms and identified ARGs using high-throughput sequencing from brains as well as from sorted neurons: they included a narrow set of circadian neurons as well as dopaminergic neurons. Surprisingly, many ARGs are specific to the stimulation paradigm and very specific to neuron type. In addition and unlike mammalian immediate early genes (IEGs), fly ARGs do not have short gene lengths and are less enriched for transcription factor function. Chromatin assays using ATAC-sequencing show that the transcription start sites (TSS) of ARGs do not change with neural firing but are already accessible prior to stimulation. Lastly based on binding site enrichment in ARGs, we identified transcription factor mediators of firing and created neuronal activity reporters.
Research Organism: D. melanogaster
Genome-wide identification of neuronal activity-regulated genes in Drosophila
Xiao Chen,1,2 Reazur Rahman,1,2 Fang Guo,1,2 and Michael Rosbash1,2,*
Acupuncture is an alternative therapy that is widely used to treat various diseases. However, detailed biological interpretation of the acupuncture stimulations is limited. We here used metabolomics and proteomics technology, thereby identifying the serum small molecular metabolites into the effect and mechanism pathways of standardized acupuncture treatments at ‘Zusanli’ acupoint which was the most often used acupoint in previous reports. Comprehensive overview of serum metabolic profiles during acupuncture stimulation was investigated. Thirty-four differential metabolites were identified in serum metabolome and associated with ten metabolism pathways. Importantly, we have found that high impact glycerophospholipid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, ether lipid metabolism were acutely perturbed by acupuncture stimulation. As such, these alterations may be useful to clarify the biological mechanism of acupuncture stimulation. A series of differentially expressed proteins were identified and such effects of acupuncture stimulation were found to play a role in transport, enzymatic activity, signaling pathway or receptor interaction. Pathway analysis further revealed that most of these proteins were found to play a pivotal role in the regulation of multiple metabolism pathways. It demonstrated that the metabolomics coupled with proteomics as a powerful approach for potential applications in understanding the biological effects of acupuncture stimulation.
Deciphering the biological effects of acupuncture treatment modulating multiple metabolism pathways
Aihua Zhang,1 Guangli Yan,1 Hui Sun,1 Weiping Cheng,1 Xiangcai Meng,1 Li Liu,1 Ning Xie,1 and Xijun Wanga,1
Coronary CT angiography (CTA) is currently considered a reliable method to exclude obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) before valvular heart surgery in patients with low pretest probability. However, its role in excluding obstructive CAD before transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is less well established. Single-center retrospective study where patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis underwent both CTA and invasive coronary angiography (ICA) as part of TAVI planning. CTA exams were conducted on a 64-slice dual source scanner, with a median interval of 45 days to ICA (IQR 25-75 [13-82]). In both tests, obstructive CAD was defined as a ≥50% stenosis in an epicardial vessel ≥2 mm diameter. Per-patient, per-vessel and per-proximal segment analyses were conducted, excluding and including non-evaluable segments. The study included 200 patients (120 women, mean age 83 ± 6 years). The prevalence of obstructive CAD on ICA was 35.5% (n = 71). On a per-patient analysis (assuming non-evaluable segments as stenotic), CTA showed sensitivity of 100% (95% CI, 95-100%), specificity of 42% (95% CI, 33-51%), and positive and negative predictive values of 48% (95% CI, 44-51%) and 100% (95% CI, 92-100%), respectively. CTA was able to exclude obstructive CAD in 54 patients (27%), in whom ICA could have been safely withheld. Despite the high rate of inconclusive tests, pre-procedural CTA is able to safely exclude obstructive CAD in a significant proportion of patients undergoing TAVI, possibly avoiding the need for ICA in roughly one quarter of the cases.
Subject terms: Interventional cardiology, Ischaemia
Diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography angiography for the exclusion of coronary artery disease in candidates for transcatheter aortic valve implantation
Christopher Strong,corresponding author1 Antonio Ferreira,1 Rui Campante Teles,1 Gustavo Mendes,1 João Abecasis,1 Goncalo Cardoso,1 Sara Guerreiro,1 Pedro Freitas,1 Ana Coutinho Santos,2 Carla Saraiva,2 João Brito,1 Luis Raposo,1 Pedro de Araújo Goncalves,1 Henrique Mesquita Gabriel,1 Manuel de Sousa Almeida,1 and Miguel Mendes1
Molecular decodification of gymnemic acids from Gymnema sylvestre. Discovery of a new class of liver X receptor antagonists PUMID/DOI：DOI：10.1016 / j.steroids.2015.01.024 Steroids. 2015 Apr;96:121-31. The individual chemical components of commercial extract of Gymnema sylvestre, a medicinal plant used in the traditional systems of the Indian medicine for its antidiabetic and hypolipidemic properties, were isolated and evaluated for their capability to act as modulators of nuclear and membrane receptors involved in glucose and lipid homeostasis.The study disclosed for the first time that individual gymnemic acids are potent and selective antagonists for the beta isoform of LXR. Indeed the above activity was shared by the most abundant aglycone gymnemagenin (10) whereas gymnestrogenin (11) was endowed with a dual LXR alpha/beta antagonistic profile. Deep pharmacological investigation demonstrated that gymnestrogenin, reducing the expression of SREBP1c and ABCA1 in vitro, is able to decrease lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells. The results of this study substantiate the use of G. syivestre extract in LXR mediated dislypidemic diseases. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.