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Gypenoside XLIX


  • Brand : BIOFRON

  • Catalogue Number : BF-G3004

  • Specification : 98%

  • CAS number : 94987-08-3

  • Formula : C52H86O21

  • Molecular Weight : 1047.23

  • PUBCHEM ID : 16007240

  • Volume : 25mg

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Catalogue Number


Analysis Method






Molecular Weight



White crystal

Botanical Source

herb of Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino.

Structure Type



Standards;Natural Pytochemical;API




(3β)-3-{[6-Deoxy-α-L-mannopyranosyl-(1->2)-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1->3)]-α-L-arabinopyranosyl]oxy}-20-hydroxy-19-oxodammar-24-en-21-yl β-D-glucopyranoside/Dammar-24-en-19-al, 3-[[O-6-deoxy-α-L-mannopyranosyl-(1->2)-O-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1->3)]-α-L-arabinopyranosyl]oxy]-21-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-20-hydroxy-, (3β)-/Gypenoside XLIX




1.4±0.1 g/cm3


Methanol; DMSO

Flash Point

306.9±27.8 °C

Boiling Point

1105.1±65.0 °C at 760 mmHg

Melting Point



InChl Key


WGK Germany


HS Code Reference


Personal Projective Equipment

Correct Usage

For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.

Meta Tag

provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:94987-08-3) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate




A sensitive, selective and rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the quantification of gypenoside XLIX, a naturally occurring gypenoside of Gynostemma pentaphyllum in rat plasma and then validated according to the US Food and Drug Administration’s Guidance for Industry: Bioanalytical Method Validation. Plasma samples were prepared by a simple solid-phase extraction. Separation was performed on a Waters XBridgeTM BEH C18 chromatography column (4.6 × 50 mm, 2.5 μm) using a mobile phase of acetonitrile and water (62.5:37.5, v/v). Gypenoside XLIX and the internal standard gypenoside A were detected in the negative ion mode using selection reaction monitoring of the transitions at m/z 1045.6 → 913.5 and 897.5 → 765.4, respectively. The calibration curve was linear (R2 > 0.990) over a concentration range of 10-7500 ng/mL with the lower quantification limit of 10 ng/mL. Intra- and inter-day precision was within 8.6% and accuracy was ≤10.2%. Stability results proved that gypenoside XLIX and the IS remained stable throughout the analytical procedure. The validated LC-MS/MS method was then applied to analyze the pharmacokinetics of gypenoside XLIX after intravenous administration to rats (1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg/kg).

Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


LC-MS/MS; gypenoside XLIX; pharmacokinetic study; rat plasma


Development of a targeted method for quantification of gypenoside XLIX in rat plasma, using SPE and LC-MS/MS.


Guo S1, Sui C2, Ma Y3.

Publish date

2017 Jun




Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) is involved in several diseases, including chronic inflammation and atherosclerosis. Inhibition of the expression of this adhesion molecule is one of the key targets of anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-atherosclerotic drugs. Gynostemma pentaphyllum is a traditional medicine widely used in the treatment of respiratory inflammation, hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. However, its molecular mechanisms of action are still largely unknown. Gypenoside XLIX, a dammarane-type glycoside, is a prominent component of G. pentaphyllum. We have recently demonstrated Gypenoside XLIX to be a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha activator. Here we demonstrate that Gypenoside XLIX concentration-dependently (0-300 microM) inhibited VCAM-1 promoter activity after induction by cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) transfected with promoter-reporter construct pVCAM-1-LUC. Furthermore, Gypenoside XLIX inhibited TNF-alpha-induced VCAM-1 mRNA and protein overexpression in HUVECs. The result of the enzyme immunoassay demonstrated that Gypenoside XLIX inhibited TNF-alpha-induced increase in cell surface VCAM-1 protein levels in HUVECs. In the present study we show that activities of Gypenoside XLIX are similar to those of Wy-14643, a potent synthetic PPAR-alpha activator. Furthermore, Gypenoside XLIX-induced inhibition on TNF-alpha-stimulated VCAM-1 promoter hyperactivity was completely abolished by a selective blocker of PPAR-alpha, MK-886. Thus, our findings suggest that Gypenoside XLIX inhibits cytokine-induced VCAM-1 overexpression and hyperactivity in human endothelial cells via a PPAR-alpha-dependent pathway. These data provide new insight into the rational basis of the use of the traditional Chinese herbal medicine G. pentaphyllum in the treatment of inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis.


Gypenoside XLIX, a naturally occurring PPAR-alpha activator, inhibits cytokine-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression and activity in human endothelial cells.


Huang TH1, Tran VH, Roufogalis BD, Li Y.

Publish date

2007 Jun 22




Nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB is important in the generation of inflammation. Besides regulating lipid metabolism, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha activators also reduce NF-kappaB activation to terminate activation of inflammatory pathways. Gynostemma pentaphyllum (GP) has been used to treat various inflammatory diseases and hyperlipidemia. Here, we demonstrate that GP extract and one of its main components, Gypenoside XLIX (Gyp-XLIX) inhibited LPS-induced NF-kappaB activation in murine macrophages. Furthermore, Gyp-XLIX restored the LPS- and TNF-alpha-induced decrease in cytosolic I-kappaBalpha protein expression and inhibited the translocation of NF-kappaB(p65) to the nucleus in THP-1 monocyte and HUVEC cells. The inhibition of LPS- and TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB luciferase activity in macrophages was abolished by MK-886, a selective PPAR-alpha antagonist. GP extract and Gyp-XLIX (EC(50): 10.1 microM) enhanced PPAR-alpha luciferase activity in HEK293 cells transfected with the tK-PPREx3-Luc reporter plasmid and expression vectors for PPAR-alpha. Additionally, Gyp-XLIX specifically enhanced PPAR-alpha mRNA and protein expression in THP-1-derived macrophage cells. The selectivity of Gyp-XLIX for PPAR-alpha was demonstrated by the activation of only PPAR-alpha in HEK293 cells transfected with expression vectors for PPAR-alpha, PPAR-beta/delta or PPAR-gamma1 plasmids and in THP-1-derived macrophage naturally expressing all three PPAR isoforms. The present study demonstrates that Gyp-XLIX, a naturally occurring gynosaponin, inhibits NF-kappaB activation via a PPAR-alpha-dependent pathway.


Gypenoside XLIX isolated from Gynostemma pentaphyllum inhibits nuclear factor-kappaB activation via a PPAR-alpha-dependent pathway.


Huang TH1, Li Y, Razmovski-Naumovski V, Tran VH, Li GQ, Duke CC, Roufogalis BD.

Publish date

2006 Jul

Description :

Gypenoside XLIX, a dammarane-type glycoside, is a prominent component of G. pentaphyllum. Gypenoside XLIX is a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha activator and inhibits cytokine-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) overexpression and hyperactivity in human endothelial cells[1].