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  • Brand : BIOFRON

  • Catalogue Number : BF-H3002

  • Specification : 98%

  • CAS number : 304-21-2

  • Formula : C13H14N2O

  • Molecular Weight : 214.3

  • PUBCHEM ID : 3564

  • Volume : 25mg

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Catalogue Number


Analysis Method






Molecular Weight



Granular crystallization

Botanical Source

Peganum harmala

Structure Type



Standards;Natural Pytochemical;API




3,4-Dihydroharmine/Armalin/3,4-Dihydro-7-methoxy-1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole/2H-Pyrido[3,4-b]indole, 3,4-dihydro-7-methoxy-1-methyl-/7-Methoxy-1-methyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-β-carboline/Harmine,dihydro/7-methoxy-1-methyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole/Harmalol methyl ether/3,4-Dihydro-7-methoxy-1-methyl-β-carboline/Dihydroharmine/Harmidine/O-Methylharmalol




1.3±0.1 g/cm3


Methanol; Chloroform

Flash Point

211.7±28.7 °C

Boiling Point

426.4±45.0 °C at 760 mmHg

Melting Point

232-234 °C(lit.)


InChl Key

WGK Germany


HS Code Reference


Personal Projective Equipment

Correct Usage

For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.

Meta Tag

provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:304-21-2) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate




Background: In the field of translational neuroscience research, it is critical to utilize a large animal model to test the feasibility, safety, and functionality of novel therapies. Here, we describe a protocol for the development of a large animal model of tremor.
Methods: In a pig model, tremor was induced with harmaline and measured with wireless accelerometers attached to the limbs. Three different doses of harmaline were tested and three repetitive injections were made at 72-hour intervals. To fully characterize the drug-induced tremor, onset time, tremor amplitude, maintained duration, and peak tremor frequency were analyzed.
Results: Harmaline-induced tremor appeared immediately following intravenous injection of harmaline. Tremor was maintained over 2 hours. Its frequency was 10-16 Hz, which was independent of doses. Dose-dependent responses were observed in tremor amplitude, triggering time, and tremor-maintained duration. Repetitive injection of harmaline desensitized the harmaline effect.
Discussion: We provide a detailed protocol for training, drug injection, device selection, and tremor recording optimized to create a swine model of tremor with harmaline. Our protocol provides reliable tremor in pigs and suggests pig as a valid translational large animal model of tremor.


Harmaline; animal model; pig; tremor; wireless accelerometer.


Development of Harmaline-induced Tremor in a Swine Model


Jihyun Lee 1 , Inyong Kim 2 , Jeyeon Lee 1 , Emily Knight 3 , Lei Cheng 4 , Shin Il Kang 5 , Dong Pyo Jang 5 , Su-Youne Chang 1 6

Publish date

2018 Mar 13




Objective: Harmaline and other beta-carbolines act as an inverse agonist for GABA-A receptors and cause central nervous system stimulation and anxiety; thus, it may act hypothetically as a potential seizure augmenter. To examine the hypothesis, the effect of harmaline during the seizures induced by amygdala kindling is investigated here.
Methods: Seven groups of male rats were kindled by daily electrical stimulation of the amygdala. After being kindled, Groups I-III, respectively, received 5, 15 and 50 mg/kg harmaline through intraperitoneal injection. The rats in Groups IV and V received vehicle daily (1 ml/kg) and harmaline (5 mg/kg) daily through intraperitoneal injection. Groups VI and VII received artificial cerebrospinal fluid and harmaline (50 mM) through intraventricular injection, respectively.
Results: In addition to significant increase of some seizure parameters in the fully kindled groups, harmaline significantly increased cumulative afterdischarge duration (P < 0.05) and decreased stage 1 latency (P < 0.01) in the acquisition groups (Groups V and VII). In Group VII, seizure duration showed a significant increase (P < 0.01) while stage 1 latency and stage 4 latency decreased significantly (P < 0.01).
Discussion: According to the results, it is suggested that harmaline may increase neuronal activity and the production of high-frequency action potentials by stimulating NMDA receptors and inhibiting GABA receptors. Overall, drugs and plants containing harmaline may be harmful to epileptic-susceptible people during some traditionally and costume treatments, so these should be avoided.


Harmaline; animal model; pig; tremor; wireless accelerometer.


The Effect of Harmaline on Seizures Induced by Amygdala Kindling in Rats


Azam Alenajaf 1 , Ehsan Mohebi 2 , Ali Moghimi 1 , Masoud Fereidoni 1 , Mohammad Mohammad-Zadeh 3 4

Publish date

2019 Jun




Background: Harmaline-induced tremor is a well-known model of essential tremor in humans. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of apomorphine, a non-selective dopamine receptor agonist, on the tremor induced by harmaline in rats. Propranolol (a first-line drug in essential tremor) was used as a reference compound.
Methods: Tremor, locomotor activity and focused stereotypy were measured objectively using force plate actimeters. Tremor was analyzed using a Fourier transform to generate power spectra for rhythmic behavior.
Results: The tremor induced by harmaline administered at a dose of 15 mg/kg ip was associated with an increase in power in the 9-15 Hz band (AP2) and in the tremor index, calculated as a difference between AP2 and power in the 0-8 Hz band (AP1). Propranolol injected at a dose of 20mg/kg ip reversed both of these effects of harmaline. Apomorphine administered at the doses of 0.5 and 1mg/kg sc further enhanced AP2 and at the lower dose also the tremor index elevated by harmaline. This increase in AP2 was stronger than enhancement of locomotor activity induced by apomorphine in the harmaline-treated animals.
Conclusions: The present study suggests that the dopamine agonist apomorphine enhances the tremor induced by harmaline, and this effect is at least partly independent of hyperactivity.


Apomorphine; Harmaline; Propranolol; Rat; Tremor.


Apomorphine Enhances Harmaline-Induced Tremor in Rats


Krystyna Ossowska 1 , Urszula Głowacka 2 , Barbara Kosmowska 2 , Jadwiga Wardas 2

Publish date

2015 Jun

Description :

Harmaline is a potent and reversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor in vivo. Harmaline is a central nervous system stimulant and can be used to induce tremor in rodents.