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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:20279-06-5) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
The increase in brain levels of chelatable zinc (Zn) in dysfunctions involving oxygen deprivation has stimulated the treatment with Zn chelators, such as diethyldithiocarbamate (DEDTC). However, DEDTC is a redox-active compound and it should be better evaluated during hypoxia. We use the hypoxia model in zebrafish to evaluate DEDTC effects. The exploratory behavior, chelatable Zn content, activities of mitochondrial dehydrogenases, reactive species levels (nitric oxide, superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical scavenger capacity) and cellular antioxidants (sulfhydryl, superoxide dismutase) of zebrafish brain were assessed after recovery, with or without 0.2 mM DEDTC. The increased brain levels of chelatable Zn induced by hypoxia were mitigated by DEDTC. However, the novel tank task indicated that DEDTC did further enhance the exploratory deficit caused by hypoxia. Furthermore, these behavioral impairments caused by DEDTC were more associated with a negative action on mitochondrial activity and brain oxidative balance. Thus, due to apparent pro-oxidant action of DEDTC, our data do not support its use for neuroprotection in neuropathologies involving oxygen deprivation.
Brain zinc chelation by diethyldithiocarbamate increased the behavioral and mitochondrial damages in zebrafish subjected to hypoxia
Marcos M. Braga,a,1,2 Emerson S. Silva,1,3 Tarsila B. Moraes,1 Gabriel Henrique Schirmbeck,1 Eduardo P. Rico,4 Charles B. Pinto,1 Denis B. Rosemberg,5,6 Carlos S. Dutra-Filho,1 Renato D. Dias,1,3 Diogo L. Oliveira,1,3,6 João Batista T. Rocha,5 and Diogo O. Souza1,3,6
Radial glial cells (RCGs) are self-renewing progenitor cells that give rise to neurons and glia during embryonic development. Throughout neurogenesis, these cells contact the cerebral ventricles and bear a primary cilium. Although the role of the primary cilium in embryonic patterning has been studied, its role in brain ventricular morphogenesis is poorly characterized. Using conditional mutants, we show that the primary cilia of radial glia determine the size of the surface of their ventricular apical domain through regulation of the mTORC1 pathway. In cilium-less mutants, the orientation of the mitotic spindle in radial glia is also significantly perturbed and associated with an increased number of basal progenitors. The enlarged apical domain of RGCs leads to dilatation of the brain ventricles during late embryonic stages (ventriculomegaly), which initiates hydrocephalus during postnatal stages. These phenotypes can all be significantly rescued by treatment with the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin. These results suggest that primary cilia regulate ventricle morphogenesis by acting as a brake on the mTORC1 pathway. This opens new avenues for the diagnosis and treatment of hydrocephalus.
Cilia, Ventricular system, mTORC1 pathway, Hydrocephalus
mTORC1 signaling and primary cilia are required for brain ventricle morphogenesis
Philippe Foerster,1 Marie Daclin,1 Shihavuddin Asm,1 Marion Faucourt,1 Alessandra Boletta,2 Auguste Genovesio,1 and Nathalie Spassky1,*
2017 Jan 15;
Through their domestication and subsequent selection, sheep have been adapted to thrive in a diverse range of environments. To characterise the genetic consequence of both domestication and selection, we genotyped 49,034 SNP in 2,819 animals from a diverse collection of 74 sheep breeds. We find the majority of sheep populations contain high SNP diversity and have retained an effective population size much higher than most cattle or dog breeds, suggesting domestication occurred from a broad genetic base. Extensive haplotype sharing and generally low divergence time between breeds reveal frequent genetic exchange has occurred during the development of modern breeds. A scan of the genome for selection signals revealed 31 regions containing genes for coat pigmentation, skeletal morphology, body size, growth, and reproduction. We demonstrate the strongest selection signal has occurred in response to breeding for the absence of horns. The high density map of genetic variability provides an in-depth view of the genetic history for this important livestock species.
Genome-Wide Analysis of the World's Sheep Breeds Reveals High Levels of Historic Mixture and Strong Recent Selection
James W. Kijas, 1 , * Johannes A. Lenstra, 2 Ben Hayes, 3 Simon Boitard, 4 Laercio R. Porto Neto, 1 Magali San Cristobal, 4 Bertrand Servin, 4 Russell McCulloch, 1 Vicki Whan, 1 Kimberly Gietzen, 5 Samuel Paiva, 6 William Barendse, 1 Elena Ciani, 7 Herman Raadsma, 8 John McEwan, 9 Brian Dalrymple, 1 and other members of the International Sheep Genomics Consortium 10 , ¶