This product is isolated and purified from the barks of Ilex rotunda Thunb.
Homovanillinic acid/2-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acetic acid/HOMORANILLIC ACID/4-Hydroxy-3-methoxy-a-toluic Acid/2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)ethanoic acid/RARECHEM AL BO 0135/Vanillacetic Acid/Vanilacetic acid/Benzeneacetic acid, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-/(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acetic acid/3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid/HVA/4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic Acid/Homovanillic acid/Homovanillate/Homovaniuic acid/HomovanillicAcid/Methoxy-4-Hydroxyphenylacetate/3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenylacetic acid/Homovanilic acid/4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid HVA
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2014 Jan 24;118:1068-74. Molecular structure and spectroscopic analysis of homovanillic acid and its sodium salt--NMR, FT-IR and DFT studies.[Pubmed: 24161870]The estimation of the electronic charge distribution in metal complex or salt allows to predict what kind of deformation of the electronic system of ligand would undergo during complexation. It also permits to make more precise interpretation of mechanism by which metals affect the biochemical properties of ligands. METHODS AND RESULTS: Theinfluence ofsodium cation on the electronic system of Homovanillic acid was studied in this paper. Optimized geometrical structures of studied compounds were calculated by B3LYP/6-311++G(**) method. Mulliken, MK and ChelpG atomic charges were analyzed. The theoretical NMR and IR spectra were obtained. (1)H and (13)C NMR as well as FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of studied compounds were also recorded and analyzed. The calculated parameters are compared with experimental characteristics of these molecules.
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In socially isolated male outbred albino mice, the changes of monoaminergic systems under acute hypoxia with hypercapnia were studied. In cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum of the right and left sides of the brain, the concentrations of norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin and their metabolites – dihydroxyphenylacetic, homovanillic and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acids were investigated using the HPLC method. In isolated mice, which were not subjected to hypoxia with hypercapnia, higher levels of dopamine and serotonin in the left cortex were found. There was no asymmetry in monoamines and their metabolites in other studied brain structures. 10 min after the onset of exposure, acute hypoxia with hypercapnia resulted in a right-sided increase in norepinephrine levels and a decrease in dopamine levels in the striatum and serotonin levels in the hippocampus. In the cerebral cortex, 10 min after of hypoxic exposure beginning, there was a left-sided decrease in the dopamine content, while the original asymmetry found in the cortex of intact animals disappeared. In isolated mice perished of hypoxia with hypercapnia, almost all parameters returned to the control level. The exception was the ratio of serotonin metabolite level to the neurotransmitter, which in the right cortex became lower than in control animals. In white outbred mice, the brain monoaminergic systems are suggested to be relatively resistant to the negative consequences of hypoxia and hypercapnia, and corresponding shifts resulting in the reflex brain response to changes in the gas composition of the respiratory air.
brain laterality; cerebral cortex; dopamine; hippocampus; hypoxia with hypercapnia; serotonin; striatum
[The time course of changes in the state of monoaminergic systems in the brain of mice under the acute hypoxia with hypercapnia].
Karpova IV1, Mikheev VV2, Marysheva VV2, Kuritcyna NA3, Bychkov ER4, Shabanov PD4.
A new method for the simultaneous determination of two tumour biomarkers, homovanillic (HVA) and vanillylmandelic acid (VMA), using flow injection analysis (FIA) with amperometric detection (AD) at a commercially available boron doped diamond electrode (BDDE) was developed. It was found that this method is suitable for the determination of HVA (in the presence of VMA) and VMA (in the presence of HVA) in optimum medium of Britton-Robinson buffer (0.04 mol L-1, pH 3.0). Calibration dependences consist of two linear parts for both biomarkers, the first one being in the concentration range from 1 to 10 μmol L-1 and the second one from 10 to 100 μmol L-1 (with obtained LODs 0.44 μmol L-1 for HVA and 0.34 μmol L-1 for VMA, respectively). To minimize any negative effects related to the passivation of the working electrode, suitable cleaning pulses (+2.4 V for 30 s) were imposed on the working electrode after each measurement. An attempt to use FIA with multiple pulse amperometric detection to determine both analytes in one run was not successful. Changing potentials in short intervals in multiple pulse detection probably results in mutual interaction of analytes and/or products of their electrochemical oxidation, thus preventing the application of this approach.
Copyright © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Boron doped diamond electrode; Flow injection analysis; Homovanillic acid; Tumour biomarkers; Vanillylmandelic acid
Determination of tumour biomarkers homovanillic and vanillylmandelic acid using flow injection analysis with amperometric detection at a boron doped diamond electrode.
Německova-Makrlikova A1, Navratil T2, Barek J3, Štenclova P4, Kromka A4, Vyskocil V5.
2019 Dec 9
The totally-amounted glucosides of paeony (TGP), which are made up of paeoniflorin, albiflorin, oxypaeoniflorin as well as benzoylpaeoniflorin, constitute the Baishao’ actively-working component extracted from Radix Paeonia alba employed in conventional oriental medicine aiming to treat cerebrovascular disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease. However, its pharmacologic mechanism is not clear.
AIM OF THE STUDY:
The initial investigation was made on TGP’s neuroprotective effects on PD of the mouse model based on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) as well as the identification of potential involvement of a molecular signaling pathway.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
The evaluation of the behavioral damage as well as neurotoxicity in mice was made through MPTP. Spontaneous motor activity test, as well as a test of Rota-rod on mice was employed for the measurement of bradykinesia symptom. Additionally, liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS) works as the determiner of the main monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine (DA) along with its metabolites 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) as well as homovanillic acid (HVA) based on mouse hippocampus connected with the anti-Parkinson’s disease like effect of TGP. Besides, the measurement of the effects of TGP treatment on the expressions level of TH, DAT, a-synuclein, p-CREBS133 as well as apoptosis influence was made with the help of western-blot assay with apoptosis-related markers such as Bax and Bcl-2.
The results showed that TGP treatment lessened the behavior-based loss shown “in the spontaneous motor activity as well as the potential of falling to rotarod test”. In addition, we found that pretreatment with TGP markedly improved motor coordination, striatal dopamine and its metabolite levels. Furthermore, pretreatment of TGP conducted the protection for dopaminergic neurons with the prevented MPTP-induced reductions within the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), substantia nigra dopaminergic transporter (DAT), as well as increasing α-synuclein protein levels with transformed dopamine catabolism as well as inhibited dopamine turnover. Besides, TGP treatment helped reversed apoptosis signaling molecules Bcl-2/Bax’ reduction; meanwhile improving p-CREBS133 the factor of growth signaling in the substantia nigra’ decrease.
These results suggested that TGP can enhance dopaminergic neuron’s cell survival in the SNpc in virtue of the activated cAMP/PKA/CREB factor of growth on inhibiting the pathway of second messenger apoptosis as well. In conclusion, the current findings indicate TGP is expected to be a new cure for PD.
Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Neuroprotective effect; Parkinson's disease; Total glucosides of paeony; cAMP/PKA/CRE
Total glucosides of paeony (TGP) extracted from Radix Paeoniae Alba exerts neuroprotective effects in MPTP-induced experimental parkinsonism by regulating the cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway.
Zheng M1, Liu C2, Fan Y3, Shi D4, Jian W5.
2019 Dec 5;