Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
463.6±55.0 °C at 760 mmHg
HS Code Reference
Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:82354-38-9) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Background: Gelsemium is a toxic flowering plant of the Gelsemiaceae family. It is used to treat skin diseases in China, and it is an important medicinal and homeopathic plant in North America. Up to now, more than 200 compounds have been isolated and reported from Gelsemium. More than 120 of these are indole alkaloids, including the main components, koumine, gelsemine and humantenmine which produce the pharmacological and toxicological effects of Gelsemium. However, their clinical application their limited by its narrow therapeutic window. Therefore, it is very important to study the metabolism and disposition of indole alkaloids from Gelsemium before their clinical application. This paper reviews all the reports on the metabolism and disposition of alkaloids isolated from Gelsemium at home and abroad.
Methods: The metabolism and disposition of alkaloids from Gelsemium were searched by the Web of Science, NCBI, PubMed and some Chinese literature databases.
Results: Only koumine, gelsemine and humantenmine have been reported, and few other alkaloids have been described. These studies indicated that the three indole alkaloids are absorbed rapidly, widely distributed in tissues, extensively metabolized and rapidly eliminated. There are species differences in the metabolism of these alkaloids, which is the reason for the differences in their toxicity in animals and humans.
Conclusion: This review not only explains the pharmacokinetics of indole alkaloids from Gelsemium but also facilitates further study on their metabolism and mechanism of toxicity.
Gelsemium; gelsemine; humantenmine; koumine; metabolism; pharmacokinetics..
The Metabolism and Disposition of Koumine, Gelsemine and Humantenmine from Gelsemium
Zi-Yuan Wang 1 2, Meng-Ting Zuo 1 2, Zhao-Ying Liu 1 2
The present paper describes a novel two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) system, which is comprised of a first-dimensional ion exchange chromatography (IEX1) column, trap column, and second-dimensional reversed-phase chromatography (RP2) column system. The biological sample is separated by the first-dimensional LC using an IEX column to remove interferences. The analytes are transferred to the trap column after heart-cutting. Then, the analytes are transferred to the second-dimensional LC using an RP2 column for further separation and ultraviolet detection. This 2D-LC system can offer a large injection volume to provide sufficient sensitivity and exhibits a strong capacity for removing interferences. Here, the determination of three monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs; gelsemine, koumine, and humantenmine) from Gelsemium in biological matrices (plasma, tissue, and urine) was used this 2D-LC system. After a rapid and easy sample preparation method based on protein precipitation, the sample was injected into the 2D-LC. The method was developed and validated in terms of the selectivity, LOD, LOQ, linearity, precision, accuracy, and stability. The sample preparation time for the three MIAs was 15 min. The LOD for these compounds was 10 ng/mL, which was lower than the developed HPLC methods. The results showed that this method had good quantitation performance and allowed the determination of gelsemine, koumine, and humantenmine in biological matrices. The method is rapid, exhibits high selectivity, has good sensitivity, and is low-cost, thus making it well-suited for application in the pharmaceutical and toxicological analysis of Gelsemium. Graphical abstract.
Gelsemine; Gelsemium; Humantenmine; Indole alkaloid; Koumine; Two-dimensional liquid chromatography.
A novel two-dimensional liquid chromatography system for the simultaneous determination of three monoterpene indole alkaloids in biological matrices
Sha-Sha Liu 1 2, Kun Yang 1 2, Zhi-Liang Sun 1 2, Xiaofeng Zheng 1 2, Xia Bai 1 2, Zhao-Ying Liu 3 4
Three monomers of G. elegans indole alkaloids (gelsemine, koumine and humantenmine) were simultaneously detected in porcine plasma for the first time with the development and validation of a sensitive and reliable LC-ESI-MS/MS method. Using a gradient mobile phase at a constant flow rate of 0.2 mL/min via electrospray ionization (positive ion mode) in a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) scan, gelsemine, koumine and humantenmine were eluted, separated and detected at an appropriate retention time. The porcine plasma was prepared using protein precipitation with 1% formic acid-acetonitrile: methanol (2:1, v/v). Using matrix-matched calibration curves and weighted least squares linear regression, a good linearity (r2 > 0.99) was achieved with a concentration range of 0.1-200 μg/L for gelsemine, koumine and humantenmine; estimated LOD and LOQ values were 0.10 μg/L and 0.2 μg/L, respectively. The mean of the recoveries was in the range of 82.68-100.35% of porcine plasma at four different levels, and the intra-day and inter-day precision (CV) were lower than 15% with a range of 2.46-8.76% and 2.73-10.83%, respectively. The proposed method has proved to be suitable for accurate, quantitative determination of gelsemine, koumine and humantenmine in porcine plasma.
Gelsemine; Gelsemium elegans; Humantenmine; Indole alkaloid; Koumine; Plasma.
Development and in-house validation of a sensitive LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantification of gelsemine, koumine and humantenmine in porcine plasma
Kun Yang 1, Xue-Ming Long 2, Yan-Chun Liu 1, Fu-Hua Chen 2, Xiao-Feng Liu 1, Zhi-Liang Sun 3, Zhao-Ying Liu 4
2018 Feb 15