bile of Pig
Hyodeoxycholic/Iodeoxycholic acid/HYODEOXYCHOLANIC ACID/HYODESOXYCHOLIC ACID/HYDROCHOLIC ACID/7-deoxyhyocholicacid/HDCA/Pig deoxybile acid/Hyodeoxycholic acid
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Previous findings on hepatic bile acid compositions in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have been inconsistent and complicated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of steatosis on hepatic bile acid composition in a hypertensive NAFLD model without obesity and diabetes mellitus and compare hepatic bile acid composition between hypertensive rats with and without steatosis.
Two groups of hypertensive rats were studied: spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) fed with a normal diet (SHR-N) or a choline-deficient diet (SHR-CD). Two groups of normotensive rats were studied: Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) fed a normal diet (WKY-N) or a choline-deficient diet (WKY-CD). Hepatic bile acid analysis was performed using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.
Regarding bile acid composition, the hyodeoxycholic acid (HDCA) species in the SHR-CD group showed the largest change in bile acid composition, significantly decreasing to 21.9% of that found in the SHR-N group. In the WKY-CD group, no reduction of HDCA species was observed.
We demonstrated that the decrease in HDCA species was the main alteration in a hypertensive NAFLD model. It was suggested that the decrease in HDCA species in the SHR-CD group was caused by dysbiosis.
© 2019 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.
bile; hypertension; liver; nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; spontaneously hypertensive rat
Decrease in major secondary bile acid, hyodeoxycholic acid, was the main alteration in hepatic bile acid compositions in a hypertensive nonalcoholic fatty liver disease model
Kodama M1, Kanno K1, Kishikawa N1, Takei H2, Nittono H2, Tazuma S1.
Bile acids (BAs) have been implicated in regulation of intestinal epithelial signaling and function. This study aimed to investigate the effects of hyodeoxycholic acid (HDCA) on intestinal epithelial cell proliferation and explore the underlying mechanisms. IPEC-J2 cells and weaned piglets were treated with HDCA and the contributions of cellular signaling pathways, BAs metabolism profiles and gut bacteria were assessed. In vitro, HDCA suppressed IPEC-J2 proliferation via the BAs receptor FXR but not TGR5. In addition, HDCA inhibited the PI3K/AKT pathway, while knockdown of FXR or constitutive activation of AKT eliminated the inhibitory effects of HDCA, suggesting that FXR-dependent inhibition of PI3K/AKT pathway was involved in HDCA-suppressed IPEC-J2 proliferation. In vivo, dietary HDCA inhibited intestinal expression of proliferative markers and PI3K/AKT pathway in weaned piglets. Meanwhile, HDCA altered the BAs metabolism profiles, with decrease in primary BA and increase in total and secondary BAs in feces, and reduction of conjugated BAs in serum. Furthermore, HDCA increased abundance of the gut bacteria associated with BAs metabolism, and thereby induced BAs profiles alternation, which might indirectly contribute to HDCA-suppressed cell proliferation. Together, HDCA suppressed intestinal epithelial cell proliferation through FXR-PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, accompanied by alteration of BAs metabolism profiles induced by gut bacteria.
© 2020 Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology.
FXR-PI3K/AKT; bile acids metabolism profiles; gut bacteria; hyodeoxycholic acid (HDCA); intestinal epithelial cell proliferation
Hyodeoxycholic acid (HDCA) suppresses intestinal epithelial cell proliferation through FXR-PI3K/AKT pathway, accompanied by alteration of bile acids metabolism profiles induced by gut bacteria.
Song M1,2, Yang Q1,2, Zhang F1,2, Chen L1,2, Su H1,2, Yang X1,2, He H1,2, Liu F1,2, Zheng J1,2, Ling M1,2, Lai X1,2, Zhu X1,2, Wang L1,2, Gao P1,2, Shu G1,2, Jiang Q1,2, Wang S1,2.
2020 Apr 4
Calculus bovis is commonly used for the treatment of stroke in traditional Chinese medicine. Hyodeoxycholic acid (HDCA) is a bioactive compound extracted from calculus bovis. When combined with cholic acid, baicalin and jas-minoidin, HDCA prevents hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced brain injury by suppressing endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptotic signaling. However, the effects of HDCA in ischemic stroke injury have not yet been studied. Neurovascular unit (NVU) dysfunction occurs in ischemic stroke. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of HDCA on the NVU under ischemic conditions in vitro. We co-cultured primary brain microvascular endothelial cells, neurons and astrocytes using a transwell chamber co-culture system. The NVU was pre-treated with 10.16 or 2.54 μg/mL HDCA for 24 hours before exposure to oxygen-glucose deprivation for 1 hour. The cell counting kit-8 assay was used to detect cell activity. Flow cytometry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling were used to assess apoptosis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, and neurotrophic factors, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. Oxidative stress-related factors, such as superoxide dismutase, nitric oxide, malondialdehyde and γ-glutamyltransferase, were measured using kits. Pretreatment with HDCA significantly decreased blood-brain barrier permeability and neuronal apoptosis, significantly increased transendothelial electrical resistance and γ-glutamyltransferase activity, attenuated oxidative stress damage and the release of inflammatory cytokines, and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor expression. Our findings suggest that HDCA maintains NVU morphological integrity and function by modulating inflammation, oxidation stress, apoptosis, and the expression of neurotrophic factors. Therefore, HDCA may have therapeutic potential in the clinical management of ischemic stroke. This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Experimental Animals of Beijing University of Chinese Medicine (approval No. BUCM-3-2016040201-2003) in April 2016.
anti-inflammatory; anti-apoptotic; anti-oxidative; blood-brain barrier permeability; brain-derived neurotrophic factor; glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor; hyodeoxycholic acid; in vitro neurovascular unit; ischemic stroke; oxygen glucose deprivation and reoxygenation
Hyodeoxycholic acid protects the neurovascular unit against oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation-induced injury in vitro.
Li CX1, Wang XQ1, Cheng FF1, Yan X1, Luo J1, Wang QG1.
Hyodeoxycholic acid is a secondary bile acid formed in the small intestine by the gut flora, and acts as a TGR5 (GPCR19) agonist, with an EC50 of 31.6 µM in CHO cells.