Off-white crystalline powder
Aqueous base; DMSO
551.0±30.0 °C at 760 mmHg
HS Code Reference
Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
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Endothelial cell injury and dysfunction caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. ROS are generated and hypoxanthine is degraded by xanthine oxidase. Smoking and alcohol consumption are associated with an increased level of hypoxanthine. We aimed to study the direct role of hypoxanthine in endothelial dysfunction in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). Hypoxanthine induced cell death and production of ROS. Furthermore, hypoxanthine induced apoptosis through regulation of protein expression related to apoptosis. When cells were pretreated with N-acetylcysteine or a pancaspase inhibitor (Z-VAD-fmk) and stimulated with hypoxanthine, Z-VAD-fmk and N-acetylcysteine prevented hypoxanthine-induced apoptosis by inhibiting the ROS production and caspase pathway. Thus, an increased extracellular concentration of hypoxanthine induces endothelial dysfunction through ROS production and regulates expression of apoptosis-related proteins in HUVECs. These effects are expected to be associated with some vascular diseases.
Copyright ? 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Apoptosis; Endothelial cell; Hypoxanthine; Reactive oxygen species
Hypoxanthine causes endothelial dysfunction through oxidative stress-induced apoptosis.
Kim YJ1, Ryu HM2, Choi JY3, Cho JH3, Kim CD2, Park SH2, Kim YL4.
2017 Jan 22
Intramolecular proton transfer of hypoxanthine, induced by application of a laser on the surface of a bare noble nanomaterial, was monitored in real time using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). This monitoring demonstrated the dependence of the reaction on the identity of the nanomaterial and on the laser power density. The results pave the way for monitoring the proton transfer reaction in various relevant fields. In addition, we observed the presence of the proton transfer phenomenon of hypoxanthine in serum, providing a way to avoid the effect of proton transfer and hence achieve more reliable spectra of sera for clinical diagnosis.
Real-time monitoring of plasmon-induced proton transfer of hypoxanthine in serum.
Zhou B1, Li S, Tang X, Li P, Cao X, Yu B, Yang L, Liu J.
2017 Aug 31
In recent years, biofilms have become a central subject of research in the fields of microbiology, medicine, agriculture, and systems biology, among others. The sociomicrobiology of multispecies biofilms, however, is still poorly understood. Here, we report a screening system that allowed us to identify soil bacteria which induce architectural changes in biofilm colonies when cocultured with Bacillus subtilis We identified the soil bacterium Lysinibacillus fusiformis M5 as an inducer of wrinkle formation in B. subtilis colonies mediated by a diffusible signaling molecule. This compound was isolated by bioassay-guided chromatographic fractionation. The elicitor was identified to be the purine hypoxanthine using mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. We show that the induction of wrinkle formation by hypoxanthine is not dependent on signal recognition by the histidine kinases KinA, KinB, KinC, and KinD, which are generally involved in phosphorylation of the master regulator Spo0A. Likewise, we show that hypoxanthine signaling does not induce the expression of biofilm matrix-related operons epsABCDEFGHIJKLMNO and tasA-sipW-tapA Finally, we demonstrate that the purine permease PbuO, but not PbuG, is necessary for hypoxanthine to induce an increase in wrinkle formation of B. subtilis biofilm colonies. Our results suggest that hypoxanthine-stimulated wrinkle development is not due to a direct induction of biofilm-related gene expression but rather is caused by the excess of hypoxanthine within B. subtilis cells, which may lead to cell stress and death.IMPORTANCE Biofilms are a bacterial lifestyle with high relevance regarding diverse human activities. Biofilms can be beneficial, for instance, in crop protection. In nature, biofilms are commonly found as multispecies communities displaying complex social behaviors and characteristics. The study of interspecies interactions will thus lead to a better understanding and use of biofilms as they occur outside laboratory conditions. Here, we present a screening method suitable for the identification of multispecies interactions and showcase L. fusiformis as a soil bacterium that is able to live alongside B. subtilis and modify the architecture of its biofilms.
Copyright ? 2017 American Society for Microbiology.
Bacillus subtilis; Lysinibacillus fusiformis; biofilms; hypoxanthine; interaction
Lysinibacillus fusiformis M5 Induces Increased Complexity in Bacillus subtilis 168 Colony Biofilms via Hypoxanthine.
Gallegos-Monterrosa R1, Kankel S1, Gotze S2, Barnett R2, Stallforth P3, Kovacs aT4,5.
2017 Oct 17
Hypoxanthine, a purine derivative, is a potential free radical generator and could be used as an indicator of hypoxia.