This product is isolated and purified from the herbs of Epimedium brevicornu
Lcariside I/icariside II/Baohuoside-1/icarisid I/3,5-Dihydroxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-8-(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-4-oxo-4H-chromen-7-yl β-D-glucopyranoside/4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 7-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-3,5-dihydroxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-8-(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-/Icariside I
Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
801.3±65.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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In epidemiologic studies, cancer stage is an important predictor of outcomes. However, cancer stage is typically unavailable in medical insurance claims datasets, thus limiting the usefulness of such data for epidemiologic studies. Therefore, we sought to develop an algorithm to predict cancer stage based on covariates available from claims-based data.
We identified a cohort of 77,306 women age ≥ 66 years with stage I-IV breast cancer, using the Surveillence Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database. We formulated an algorithm to predict cancer stage using covariates (demographic, tumor, and treatment characteristics) obtained from claims. Logistic regression models derived prediction equations in a training set, and equations’ test characteristics (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value [NPV]) were calculated in a validation set.
Of the entire sample of women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, 51% had stage I; 26% stage II; 11% stage III; and 4% stage IV disease. The equation predicting stage IV disease achieved sensitivity of 81%, specificity 89%, positive predictive value (PPV) 24%, and negative predictive value (NPV) 99%, while the equation distinguishing stage I/II from stage III disease achieved sensitivity 83%, specificity 78%, PPV 98%, and NPV 31%. Combined, the equations most accurately identified early stage disease and ascertained a sample in which 98% of patients were stage I or II.
A claims-based algorithm was utilized to predict breast cancer stage, and was particularly successful when used to identify early stage disease. These prediction equations may be applied in future studies of breast cancer patients, substantially improving the utility of claims-based studies in this group. This method may similarly be employed to develop algorithms permitting claims-based epidemiologic studies of patients with other cancers.
A method to predict breast cancer stage using Medicare claims
Grace L Smith,1 Ya-Chen T Shih,2 Sharon H Giordano,3 Benjamin D Smith,1,4 and Thomas A Buchholzcorresponding author1
The Barbados National Cancer Study (BNCS) is a nationwide case-control study investigating environmental and genetic factors for breast cancer (BC) in a predominantly African-origin population with similar ancestry as African-Americans. This report evaluates associations of incident BC in the BNCS to various factors, including demographic, anthropometric, reproductive and family history variables, not investigated previously in this population. The BNCS included 241 incident BC cases and 481 age-matched female controls, with mean ages of 57 and 56 years, respectively. In addition to a reported family history of BC in a close relative [odds ratios (OR) = 3.74, 95% CI (1.41, 9.90) in a parent; OR = 3.26 (1.47, 7.21) in a sibling], other factors associated with BC were older age at first full-term pregnancy [OR = 1.04 (1.00, 1.07)] and having a history of benign breast disease [OR = 1.88 (1.19, 2.99)]. Increased parity reduced the risk of BC [OR = 0.34 (0.15, 0.77) among those with ≥3 children]. The reproductive patterns of African-Barbadian (AB) women tended to differ from those of African-American (AA) women (later age of menarche, earlier age at first pregnancy, higher frequency of lactation and infrequent use of exogenous hormones) and could help to explain their considerably lower postmenopausal incidence of BC. The relationship between reported family history and BC, combined with the associations noted for several reproductive and other variables, supports the genetic and environmental contributions to BC, which may vary in populations across the African diaspora. Further investigations of other populations may clarify these issues.
breast cancer, risk factors, African-origin population
Risk factors for breast cancer in a black population—The Barbados National Cancer Study
Barbara Nemesure,1,* Suh-Yuh Wu,1 Ian R. Hambleton,2 M. Cristina Leske,1 and Anselm J. Hennison1,2,3, behalf of the Barbados National Cancer Study Group1,2,3,4,5,6
2009 Mar 23.
The development of an anthropometric craniofacial database is a necessary multidisciplinary proposal.
The aim of this study was to establish facial anthropometric norms and to investigate into sexual dimorphism in facial variables among Kosovo Albanian adults.
Materials and Methods
The sample included 204 students of Dental School, Faculty of Medicine, University of Pristina. Using direct anthropometry, a series of 8 standard facial measurements was taken on each subject with digital caliper with an accuracy of 0.01 mm (Boss, Hamburg-Germany). The normative data and percentile rankings were calculated. Gender differences in facial variables were analyzed using t- test for independent samples (p<0.05). The index of sexual dimorphism (ISD) and percentage of sexual dimorphism were calculated for each facial measurement. Results: N ormative data for all facial anthropometric measurements in males were higher than in females. Male average norms compared with the female average norms differed significantly from each other (p>0.05).The highest index of sexual dimorphism (ISD) was found for the lower facial height 1.120, for which the highest percentage of sexual dimorphism, 12.01%., was also found. The lowest ISD was found for intercanthal width, 1.022, accompanied with the lowest percentage of sexual dimorphism, 2.23%.
The obtained results have established the facial anthropometric norms among Kosovo Albanian adults. Sexual dimorphism has been confirmed for each facial measurement.
Cephalometry, Sexual Dimorphism, Population Characteristics, Albanians Adult, Kosovo
Facial Anthropometric Norms among Kosovo - Albanian Adults
Gloria Staka, Flurije Asllani-Hoxha, and Venera Bimbashi