llexhainanensis Merr(Hainan holly leaf); Ilex pubescens
Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
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The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2-associated pneumonia, a disease called COVID-19, has caused a pandemic worldwide. To investigate the immune responses after infection of SARS-CoV-2 in non-critical patients may help to better understand the disease progression. We collected 334 confirmed COVID-19 cases including 212 still in hospital with nucleic acid test positive on halfway for SARS-CoV-2 and 122 discharged from hospital, compared specific antibodies, immune cells, and cytokine changes between the hospitalized and discharged patients. The hospitalized patients had a longer illness time compared with discharged patients. Analysis of viral loads explained long-term or persistent infection of SARS-CoV-2, which existed with the median time of 18.5 days of the positive nucleic acid test. Serum analysis showed that the specific anti-N IgG antibody was positive in all detected patients after infection of two weeks. Neutrophils, Monocytes, NK cells, and CD4+ T cells significantly increased, while total lymphocytes and CD8+ T cells decreased from non-critical hospitalized patients after longer-term infection. Further analysis of the cytokines showed that IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-10 from the hospitalized patients were significantly higher, indicating a potential of the increased CD4+ T cell differentiation.
SARS-CoV-2, Long-term infection, Immune response
Long-term infection of SARS-CoV-2 changed the body's immune status
Lan Lin,a,1 Shanshan Luo,b,1 Renjie Qin,a,1 Mengling Yang,a Xiaobei Wang,c Qianqian Yang,c Yang Zhang,c Quansheng Wang,a Rui Zhu,a Heng Fan,a Haijun Wang,d Yu Hu,b,⁎ Lin Wang,c,⁎ and Desheng Hua,b,⁎
Because large, prospective, population-based data sets describing maternal outcomes are typically not available in low- and middle-income countries, it is difficult to monitor maternal mortality rates over time and to identify factors associated with maternal mortality. Early identification of risk factors is essential to develop comprehensive intervention strategies preventing pregnancy-related complications. Our objective was to describe maternal mortality rates in a large, multi-country dataset and to determine maternal, pregnancy-related, delivery and postpartum characteristics that are associated with maternal mortality.
We collected data describing all pregnancies from 2010 to 2013 among women enrolled in the multi-national Global Network for Women’s and Children’s Health Research Maternal and Neonatal Health Registry (MNHR). We reported the proportion of mothers who died per pregnancy and the maternal mortality ratio (MMR). Generalized linear models were used to evaluate the relationship of potential medical and social factors and maternal mortality and to develop point and interval estimates of relative risk associated with these factors. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for the correlation of outcomes within cluster to develop appropriate confidence intervals.
We recorded 277,736 pregnancies and 402 maternal deaths for an MMR of 153/100,000 live births. We observed an improvement in the total MMR from 166 in 2010 to 126 in 2013. The MMR in Latin American sites (91) was lower than the MMR in Asian (178) and African sites (125). When adjusted for study site and the other variables, no formal education (RR 3.2 [1.5, 6.9]), primary education only (RR 3.4 [1.6, 7.5]), secondary education only (RR 2.5 [1.1, 5.7]), lack of antenatal care (RR 1.8 [1.2, 2.5]), caesarean section delivery (RR 1.9 [1.3, 2.8]), hemorrhage (RR 3.3 [2.2, 5.1]), and hypertensive disorders (RR 7.4 [5.2, 10.4]) were associated with higher risks of death.
The MNHR identified preventable causes of maternal mortality in diverse settings in low- and middle-income countries. The MNHR can be used to monitor public health strategies and determine their association with reducing maternal mortality.
Risk factors for maternal death and trends in maternal mortality in low- and middle-income countries: a prospective longitudinal cohort analysis
Melissa Bauserman,corresponding author1 Adrien Lokangaka,2 Vanessa Thorsten,3 Antoinette Tshefu,2 Shivaprasad S Goudar,4 Fabian Esamai,5 Ana Garces,6 Sarah Saleem,7 Omrana Pasha,7 Archana Patel,8 Albert Manasyan,9 Mabel Berrueta,10 Bhala Kodkany,4 Elwyn Chomba,9 Edward A Liechty,11 K Michael Hambidge,12 Nancy F Krebs,12 Richard J Derman,13 Patricia L Hibberd,14 Fernando Althabe,10 Waldemar A Carlo,15 Marion Koso-Thomas,16 Robert L Goldenberg,17 Dennis D Wallace,3 Elizabeth M McClure,3 and Carl L Bose1
To improve care and control for patients with adult-onset asthma, a better understanding of determinants of their risk and outcomes is important. We investigated how associations between asthma, asthma control and obesity may be modified by patient demographic characteristics.
This retrospective study of adults enrolled in several health plans across the U.S. (n = 2,860,305) examined the interacting effects of obesity, age, race, and sex on adult-onset asthma and asthma control. Multivariable adjusted Cox and logistic regression models estimated hazard ratios (HR), and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between body mass index (BMI) and study outcomes, and interactions of BMI with demographic characteristics.
Compared with individuals who had a BMI <25 kg/m2, the hazard of adult-onset asthma progressively increased with increasing BMI, from a 12 % increase among persons with a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2 (HR 1.12, 95 % CI 1.10, 1.14) to an almost 250 % increase among persons with a BMI ≥50 kg/m2 (HR 2.49, 95 % CI 2.38, 2.60). The magnitude of the association between obesity and asthma risk was greater for women (compared with men) and lower for Blacks (compared with non-Hispanic Whites). Among individuals with asthma, obesity was associated with poorly controlled and high-risk asthma. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that the magnitude of the associations between obesity and adult-onset asthma incidence and control are modified by race, age, and sex. Understanding the role of obesity in the development of adult-onset asthma will help to improve asthma treatment algorithms and to develop targeted interventions.
Asthma, Adult-onset, Obesity, Race, Sex, Ethnicity
Interacting effects of obesity, race, ethnicity and sex on the incidence and control of adult-onset asthma
Corinna Koebnick,corresponding author1 Heidi Fischer,1 Matthew F. Daley,2 Assiamira Ferrara,3 Michael A. Horberg,4 Beth Waitzfelder,5 Deborah Rohm Young,1 and Michael K. Gould1