β-D-Glucopyranoside, (3β,6α,9β,16β,20R,24S)-3-[(2,4-di-O-acetyl-β-D-xylopyranosyl)oxy]-20,24-epoxy-16,25-dihydroxy-9,19-cyclolanostan-6-yl/Isoastragaloside-I/(3β,6α,9β,16β,20R,24S)-3-[(2,4-Di-O-acetyl-β-D-xylopyranosyl)oxy]-16,25-dihydroxy-20,24-epoxy-9,19-cyclolanostan-6-yl β-D-glucopyranoside
Isoastragaloside I is a natural compound from the medicinal herb Radix Astragali; possesses the activity of elevating adiponectin production.IC50 value:Target:Astragaloside II and isoastragaloside I selectively increased adiponectin secretion in primary adipocytes without any obvious effects on a panel of other adipokines. Furthermore, an additive effect on induction of adiponectin production was observed between these two compounds and rosiglitazone, a thiazolidinedione class of insulin-sensitizing drugs. Chronic administration of astragaloside II and isoastragaloside I in both dietary and genetic obese mice significantly elevated serum levels of total adiponectin and selectively increased the composition of its high molecular weight oligomeric complex.
Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
920.6±65.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:84676-88-0) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
In the screening of natural plant extracts for antifungal activity, assessment of their effects on the growth of cells in suspension or in the wells of microtiter plates is expedient. However, microorganisms, including Candida albicans, grow in nature as biofilms, which are organized cellular communities with a complex architecture capable of conditioning their microenvironment, communicating, and excluding low- and high-molecular-weight molecules and white blood cells. Here, a confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) protocol for testing the effects of large numbers of agents on biofilm development is described. The protocol assessed nine parameters from a single z-stack series of CLSM scans for each individual biofilm analyzed. The parameters included adhesion, thickness, formation of a basal yeast cell polylayer, hypha formation, the vertical orientation of hyphae, the hyphal bend point, pseudohypha formation, calcofluor white staining of the extracellular matrix (ECM), and human white blood cell impenetrability. The protocol was applied first to five plant extracts and derivative compounds and then to a collection of 88 previously untested plant extracts. They were found to cause a variety of phenotypic profiles, as was the case for 64 of the 88 extracts (73%). Half of the 46 extracts that did not affect biofilm thickness affected other biofilm parameters. Correlations between specific effects were revealed. The protocol will be useful not only in the screening of chemical libraries but also in the analysis of compounds with known effects and mutations.
Candida albicans, natural agents, antibiofilm agents
Protocol for Identifying Natural Agents That Selectively Affect Adhesion, Thickness, Architecture, Cellular Phenotypes, Extracellular Matrix, and Human White Blood Cell Impenetrability of Candida albicans Biofilms
Yang-Nim Park,a Thyagarajan Srikantha,a Karla J. Daniels,a Melissa R. Jacob,b Ameeta K. Agarwal,b Xing-Cong Li,b and David R. Sollcorresponding authora
The opioid epidemic is a major public health crisis in the U.S. Contemporary data on opioid use disorder (OUD) related hospitalizations are needed. Our objective was to assess whether OUD hospitalizations and associated mortality are increasing over time and examine the factors associated healthcare utilization and mortality.
Methods and findings
We examined the rates of OUD hospitalizations and associated mortality using the U.S. National Inpatient Sample (NIS) data from 1998-2016. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression assessed the association of demographic, clinical and hospital characteristics with inpatient mortality and healthcare utilization (total hospital charges, discharge to a rehabilitation facility, length of hospital stay) during the index hospitalization for opioid use disorder. We calculated the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We estimated 781,767 OUD hospitalizations. The rate of OUD hospitalization and associated mortality (/100,000 overall NIS hospitalizations) increased from 59.8 and 1.2 in 1998-2000 to 190.7 and 5.9 in 2015-16, respectively. In the multivariable-adjusted analysis, the following factors were associated with worse outcomes; compared to age <34 years, older age was associated with higher risk of hospital charges above the median and length of stay >3 days, slightly higher risk of discharge to a rehabilitation facility. Higher Deyo-Charlson score was associated with higher hospital charges, length of hospital stay, and inpatient mortality. Women had lower odds of inpatient mortality than men and blacks had lower odds of mortality than whites.
Rising OUD hospitalizations from 1998 to 2016 and increasing associated inpatient mortality are concerning. Certain groups are at higher risk of poor utilization outcomes and inpatient mortality. Resources and healthcare policies need to focus on the high-risk group to reduce mortality and associated utilization.
National U.S. time-trends in opioid use disorder hospitalizations and associated healthcare utilization and mortality
Jasvinder A. Singh, Conceptualization, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Resources, Software, Supervision, Validation, Writing - original draft, Writing - review & editing1,2,3,* and John D. Cleveland, Data curation, Formal analysis, Methodology, Project administration, Writing - review & editing2
Hysteroscopy is increasingly performed in an outpatient setting. Pain is the primary reason for abandonment of procedure or incomplete assessment. There is no consensus upon routine use of analgesia during hysteroscopy.
To assess the effectiveness and safety of pharmacological interventions for pain relief in women undergoing outpatient hysteroscopy, compared with placebo, no treatment or other pharmacological therapies.
In September 2016 we searched the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility (CGF) Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL and two trials registers (ClinicalTrials.gov and WHO ICTRP), together with reference checking and contact with study authors and experts.
We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing use of pharmacological interventions with other pharmacological interventions and pharmacological interventions versus placebo or no treatment.
Data collection and analysis
We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Our primary outcome was mean pain score.
We included 32 RCTS (3304 participants), of which only 19 reported data suitable for analysis. Most studies were at unclear or high risk of bias in most of the domains assessed. The evidence was low or very low quality, mainly due to risk of bias and imprecision. Baseline pain scores were relatively low in all groups.
Analgesic versus placebo or no treatment
Local anaesthetics reduced mean pain scores during the procedure [(SMD) ‐0.29, 95% CI ‐0.39 to ‐0.19, 10 RCTs, 1496 women, I2 = 80%, low‐quality evidence)] and within 30 minutes (SMD 0.50, 95% CI ‐0.67 to ‐0.33, 5 RCTs, 545 women, I2 = 43%, low‐quality evidence). This translates to a difference of up to 7 mm on a 0‐10 cm visual analogue scale (VAS) during the procedure and up to 13 mm within 30 minutes, which is unlikely to be clinically meaningful. There was no clear evidence of a difference between the groups in mean pain scores after > 30 minutes (SMD ‐0.11, 95% CI ‐0.30 to 0.07, 4 RCTs, 450 women, I2 = 0%, low‐quality evidence), or in rates of vasovagal reactions (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.13, 8 RCTs, 1309 women, I2 = 66%, very low‐quality evidence). There was insufficient evidence to determine whether there was a difference in rates of non‐pelvic pain (OR 1.76, 95% CI 0.53 to 5.80, 1 RCT, 99 women, very low‐quality evidence).
Nonsteroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
There was insufficient evidence to determine whether there was a difference between the groups in mean pain scores during the procedure (SMD ‐0.18, 95% CI ‐0.35 to 0.00, 3 RCTs, 521 women, I2 = 81%, low‐quality evidence). Pain scores were lower in the NSAIDs group within 30 minutes (SMD ‐0.25, 95% CI ‐0.46 to ‐0.04, 2 RCTs, 340 women, I2=29%, low‐quality evidence) and at over 30 minutes (SMD ‐0.27, 95% CI ‐0.49 to ‐0.05, 2 RCTs, 321 women, I2 = 78%, low‐quality evidence). This equates to maximum differences of under 7.5 mm on a 0‐10 cm scale, which are unlikely to be clinically significant. One RCT (181 women) reported adverse events: there was insufficient evidence to determine whether there was a difference between the groups in vasovagal reactions (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.20 to 2.94, very low‐quality evidence). For other reported adverse events (non pelvic pain and allergic reactions) evidence was lacking.
One RCT utilised sublingual buprenorphine and one utilised oral tramadol. Data on pain scores during the procedure were unsuitable for pooling due to inconsistency. Tramadol was associated with a benefit of up to 22 mm on a 0‐10 cm scale (SMD ‐0.76, 95% CI ‐1.10 to ‐0.42, 1 RCT, 140 women). However, the effect estimate for this outcome for sublingual opioids did not support a benefit from the intervention (SMD 0.08, 95% CI ‐0.22 to 0.39, 164 women). Compared with placebo, the pain score within 30 minutes of the procedure was reduced in the tramadol group, with a difference of up to 17mm on a 0‐10cm scale (SMD ‐0.57, 95% CI ‐0.91 to ‐0.23 , 1 RCT, 140 women, low‐quality evidence. There was no clear evidence of a difference between the tramadol and placebo groups at over 30 minutes (SMD ‐0.17, 95% CI ‐0.51 to 0.16, 1 RCT, 140 women, low‐quality evidence). Nausea and vomiting occurred in 39% of the buprenorphine group, and in none of the placebo group (OR 107.55, 95% CI 6.44 to 1796.46)
Analgesic versus any other analgesic
Some comparisons did not report pain scores at all time frames of interest, and none reported data on adverse events.
One RCT (84 women) compared local intracervical anaesthesia versus combined intracervical and paracervical anaesthesia. Pain scores were higher in the group with local intracervical anaesthesia during the procedure (SMD 4.27, 95% CI 3.49 to 5.06, very low‐quality evidence), within 30 minutes (SMD 1.55, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.05, very low‐quality evidence) and at more than 30 minutes (SMD 3.47, 95% CI 2.78 to 4.15, very low‐quality evidence). This translates to a possible benefit in the combined group of up to 12 mm on a 0‐10 cm scale during the procedure. Benefits at longer follow‐up were smaller.
One RCT compared antispasmodic + NSAID versus local paracervical anaesthesia. Pain scores were lower in the NSAID group than in the local anaesthesia group (during procedure: SMD ‐1.40, 95% CI ‐1.90 to ‐0.91; >30 minutes after procedure: SMD ‐0.87, 95% CI ‐1.33 to ‐0.41; 80 women, very low‐quality evidence). This suggests a possible benefit of during the procedure of up to 23 mm on a 0‐10 VAS scale and up to 11 mm >30 minutes after the procedure.
Other comparisons included local intracervical anaesthesia versus combined intracervical, paracervical and topical anaesthesia, and opioid versus NSAIDs. Findings were inconclusive.
There was no consistent good‐quality evidence of a clinically meaningful difference in safety or effectiveness between different types of pain relief compared with each other or with placebo or no treatment in women undergoing outpatient hysteroscopy.
Female, Humans, Ambulatory Surgical Procedures, Ambulatory Surgical Procedures/adverse effects, Analgesia, Analgesia/methods, Anesthetics, Local, Anesthetics, Local/therapeutic use, Hysteroscopy, Hysteroscopy/adverse effects, Pain, Postoperative, Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy
Pain relief for outpatient hysteroscopy
Gaity Ahmad, Sushant Saluja, Helena O'Flynn, Alessandra Sorrentino, Daniel Leach, and Andrew Watson