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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:57378-72-0) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
The Chinese medicinal plant Artemisia annua L. (Qinghao) is the only known source of the sesquiterpene artemisinin (Qinghaosu), which is used in the treatment of malaria. Artemisinin is a highly oxygenated sesquiterpene, containing a unique 1,2,4-trioxane ring structure, which is responsible for the antimalarial activity of this natural product. The phytochemistry of A. annua is dominated by both sesquiterpenoids and flavonoids, as is the case for many other plants in the Asteraceae family. However, A. annua is distinguished from the other members of the family both by the very large number of natural products which have been characterised to date (almost six hundred in total, including around fifty amorphane and cadinane sesquiterpenes), and by the highly oxygenated nature of many of the terpenoidal secondary metabolites. In addition, this species also contains an unusually large number of terpene allylic hydroperoxides and endoperoxides. This observation forms the basis of a proposal that the biogenesis of many of the highly oxygenated terpene metabolites from A. annua – including artemisinin itself – may proceed by spontaneous oxidation reactions of terpene precursors, which involve these highly reactive allyllic hydroperoxides as intermediates. Although several studies of the biosynthesis of artemisinin have been reported in the literature from the 1980s and early 1990s, the collective results from these studies were rather confusing because they implied that an unfeasibly large number of different sesquiterpenes could all function as direct precursors to artemisinin (and some of the experiments also appeared to contradict one another). As a result, the complete biosynthetic pathway to artemisinin could not be stated conclusively at the time. Fortunately, studies which have been published in the last decade are now providing a clearer picture of the biosynthetic pathways in A. annua. By synthesising some of the sesquiterpene natural products which have been proposed as biogenetic precursors to artemisinin in such a way that they incorporate a stable isotopic label, and then feeding these precursors to intact A. annua plants, it has now been possible to demonstrate that dihydroartemisinic acid is a late-stage precursor to artemisinin and that the closely related secondary metabolite, artemisinic acid, is not (this approach differs from all the previous studies, which used radio-isotopically labelled precursors that were fed to a plant homogenate or a cell-free preparation). Quite remarkably, feeding experiments with labeled dihydroartemisinic acid and artemisinic acid have resulted in incorporation of label into roughly half of all the amorphane and cadinane sesquiterpenes which were already known from phytochemical studies of A. annua. These findings strongly support the hypothesis that many of the highly oxygenated sesquiterpenoids from this species arise by oxidation reactions involving allylic hydroperoxides, which seem to be such a defining feature of the chemistry of A. annua. In the particular case of artemisinin, these in vivo results are also supported by in vitro studies, demonstrating explicitly that the biosynthesis of artemisinin proceeds via the tertiary allylic hydroperoxide, which is derived from oxidation of dihydroartemisinic acid. There is some evidence that the autoxidation of dihydroartemisinic acid to this tertiary allylic hydroperoxide is a non-enzymatic process within the plant, requiring only the presence of light; and, furthermore, that the series of spontaneous rearrangement reactions which then convert this allylic hydroperoxide to the 1,2,4-trioxane ring of artemisinin are also non-enzymatic in nature.
artemisinin, dihydroartemisinic acid, sesquiterpene, biosynthesis, Artemisia annua, phytochemistry, oxidation, allylic hydroperoxide
The Biosynthesis of Artemisinin (Qinghaosu) and the Phytochemistry of Artemisia annua L. (Qinghao)
Geoffrey D. Brown
Lonicerae Japonicae Flos (LJF) and Lonicerae Flos (LF) belong to different genera of Caprifoliaceae. They have been historically utilised as herbal medicine to treat various diseases. However, the comprehensive assessment of them still remains a challenge.
To develop a comprehensive method of ultra‐fast liquid chromatography‐tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UFLC‐QTRAP‐MS/MS) coupled with multivariate statistical analysis for the quality evaluation and reveal differential components of LJF and LF.
A validated UFLC‐QTRAP‐MS/MS method was established for simultaneous determination of 50 constituents, including 12 organic acids, 12 flavonoids, 6 iridoids, 3 saponins, 13 amino acids and 4 nucleosides. The obtained data were employed to multivariate statistical analysis. Principal component anlysis (PCA) and partial least squares determinant analysis (PLS‐DA) were performed to classify and reveal differential components of samples; grey relational analysis (GRA) was introduced to assess the samples according to the contents of 50 constituents by calculating the relative correlation degree of each sample.
Fifty constituents were simultaneously determined of LJF and LF. Based on obtained data, PCA and PLS‐DA were easy to distinguish samples and the classification of the samples was related to 11 chemical constituents. GRA implied the quality of LJF was better, and that the flower buds were superior to the flowers. Moreover, organic acids are the main components of samples.
This study not only established a method of simultaneous determination of multiple bioactive constituents in LJF and LF, but provided comprehensive information on the quality control of them. The developed method is conducive to distinguish orthologues or paralogues of them, and supply the support for “heterologous effects”.
Lonicerae Flos, Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, multiple bioactive constituents, multivariate statistical analysis, UFLC‐QTRAP‐MS/MS
Quality evaluation of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Lonicerae Flos based on simultaneous determination of multiple bioactive constituents combined with multivariate statistical analysis
Zhichen Cai, 1 Chengcheng Wang, 1 Cuihua Chen, 1 Lisi Zou, 1 Chuan Chai, 1 Jiali Chen, 1 Mengxia Tan, 1 and Xunhong Liucorresponding author 1
2019 Aug 14
In this study, a series of di-O-caffeoylquinic acids (di-COQs) were systematically investigated for their antioxidant and cytoprotective effects towards •OH-damaged bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bmMSCs). Five di-COQs were measured using a set of antioxidant assays. The results show that adjacent 4,5-Di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4,5-COQ) and 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (3,4-COQ) always gave lower IC50 values than did non-adjacent di-COQs. In the Fe2+-chelating assay, 4,5-COQ and 3,4-COQ presented greater UV-Vis spectra and darker colors than did non-adjacent di-COQs. In the UPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis, no corresponding radical adduct formation (RAF) peak was found in the reaction products of di-COQs with PTIO•. In the MTT assay, all di-COQs (especially 1,5-COQ, 1,3-COQ, and 4,5-COQ) dose-dependently increased the cellular viabilities of •OH-damaged bmMSCs. Based on this evidence, we conclude that the five antioxidant di-COQs can protect bmMSCs from •OH-induced damage. Their antioxidant mechanisms may include electron-transfer (ET), H+-transfer, and Fe2+-chelating, except for RAF. Two adjacent di-COQs (4,5-COQ and 3,4-COQ) always possessed a higher antioxidant ability than the non-adjacent di-COQs (1,3-COQ, 1,5-COQ, and 3,5-COQ) in chemical models. However, non-adjacent 1,3-COQ and 1,5-COQ exhibited a higher cytoprotective effect than did adjacent di-COQs. These differences can be attributed to the relative positions of two caffeoyl moieties and, ultimately, to the conformational effect from the cyclohexane skeleton.
conformational effect, caffeoylquinic acids, antioxidant, cytoprotective effect
Antioxidant and Cytoprotective Effects of the Di-O-Caffeoylquinic Acid Family: The Mechanism, Structure-Activity Relationship, and Conformational Effect
Xican Li,1,2,*† Ke Li,3,4,† Hong Xie,1,2 Yulu Xie,1,2 Yueying Li,1 Xiaojun Zhao,1,2 Xiaohua Jiang,5 and Dongfeng Chen3,4,*