This product is isolated and purified from the heartwood of Maackia amurensis
6H-Benzofuro[3,2-c]benzopyran-9-ol, 6a,11a-dihydro-3-methoxy-, (6aR,11aR)-/6H-Benzofuro[3,2-c]benzopyran-3-ol, 6a,11a-dihydro-9-methoxy-, (6aR-cis)-/DL-galactose-phenylhydrazone/(-)-3-Hydroxy-9-methoxypterocarpan/glutamic acid,hydrochloride/Demethylhomopterocarpin/Medicarpin/D-Mannose phenylhydrazone/(6aR,11aR)-9-Methoxy-6a,11a-dihydro-6H-benzofuro[3,2-c]chromen-3-ol/Mannose,phenylhydrazone,D/6H-Benzofuro[3,2-c]benzopyran-3-ol, 6a,11a-dihydro-9-methoxy-, (6aR,11aR)-/DL-glutamic hydrochloride/(6aR,11aR)-3-Methoxy-6a,11a-dihydro-6H-benzofuro[3,2-c]chromen-9-ol/(6aR-cis)-6a,11a-Dihydro-9-methoxy-6H-benzofuro[3,2-c]benzopyran-3-ol/Medicarpin, (-)-/dl-isomedicarpin
Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
418.8±45.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:74560-05-7) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Purpose: To investigate the influence of age on the neuromuscular blocking effect of cisatracurium. Methods: 90 patients with ASA I and II were assigned to the following groups according to their age: adults, children, and infants. Each group was subdivided into three subgroups according to the first dose of cisatracurium. Patients were administrated at a first dose of cisatracurium randomly, and their responses to train-of-four (TOF) stimulation were observed. When the same degree of the first response (T1) continuously repeats three times, the percentage of T1 inhibition was recorded, and the curve of dose-effect relationship and ED95 were calculated. A second dose of cisatracurium was then administrated (total volume 100 μg/kg). The recovery phase in each patient was observed upon T1 reaching the maximum blocking effect (100%). Results: Once the maximum blocking effect was reached, patients were intubated. There were 83 cases (92.2%) of patients with grade 1 and 7 (7.8%) patients with grade 2 intubating conditions. ED95 was 59.29, 55.88 and 45.39 μg/kg in adults, children, and infants, respectively. ED95 positively correlated with age. The clinical duration of neuromuscular blockade, effective action duration of neuromuscular blockade, and in vivo action duration of neuromuscular blockade in adults was longer than that in children (P<0.05), but shorter than in infants (P<0.05). However, there were no significant differences in the recovery index among groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: Age influences the neuromuscular blocking effects of cisatracurium to a certain extent.
Cisatracurium, dose-effect relationship, recovery phase, age
Age and the neuromuscular blockading effects of cisatracurium
Jianrong Guo,1 Xiaofang Zhou,1 Xiaohong Yuan,2 Huachun Shen,1 and Yiwei Zhang1
Miscanthus is a rhizomatous C4 grass which is considered as potential high-yielding energy crop with the low-nutrient requirements, high water-use efficiency, and capability of C mitigation. To better understand the genetic basis, an integrative analysis of the transcriptome and proteome was performed to identify important genes and pathways involved in Miscanthus leaves. At the transcript level, 64,663 transcripts in M. lutarioriparius, 97,043 in M. sacchariflorus, 97,043 in M. sinensis, 67,323 in M. floridulus and 70,021 in M. × giganteus were detected by an RNA sequencing approach. At the protein level, 1964 peptide-represented proteins were identified and 1933 proteins differed by 1.5-fold or more in their relative abundance, as indicated by iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation) analysis. Phylogenies were constructed from the nearly taxa of Miscanthus. A large number of genes closely related to biomass production were found. And SSR markers and their corresponding primers were derived from Miscanthus transcripts and 90% of them were successfully detected by PCR amplification among Miacanthus species. These similarities and variations on the transcriptional and proteomic level between Miscanthus species will serve as a resource for research in Miscanthus and other lignocellulose crops.
Transcriptomics and proteomics reveal genetic and biological basis of superior biomass crop Miscanthus
Jiajing Sheng,1 Xingfei Zheng,1 Jia Wang,1 Xiaofei Zeng,1 Fasong Zhou,1 Surong Jin,3 Zhongli Hu,corresponding author1 and Ying Diaocorresponding author1,2
Dorsal lateral striatum (DLS) is a highly associative structure that encodes relationships among environmental stimuli, behavioral responses, and predicted outcomes. DLS is known to be disrupted after chronic drug abuse; however, it remains unclear what neural signals in DLS are altered. Current theory suggests that drug use enhances stimulus-response processing at the expense of response-outcome encoding, but this has mostly been tested in simple behavioral tasks. Here, we investigated what neural correlates in DLS are affected by previous cocaine exposure as rats performed a complex reward-guided decision-making task in which predicted reward value was independently manipulated by changing the delay to or size of reward associated with a response direction across a series of trial blocks. After cocaine self-administration, rats exhibited stronger biases toward higher-value reward and firing in DLS more strongly represented action-outcome contingencies independent from actions subsequently taken rather than outcomes predicted by selected actions (chosen-outcome contingencies) and associations between stimuli and actions (stimulus-response contingencies). These results suggest that cocaine self-administration strengthens action-outcome encoding in rats (as opposed to chosen-outcome or stimulus-response encoding), which abnormally biases behavior toward valued reward when there is a choice between two options during reward-guided decision-making.
SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Current theories suggest that the impaired decision-making observed in individuals who chronically abuse drugs reflects a decrease in goal-directed behaviors and an increase in habitual behaviors governed by neural representations of response-outcome (R-O) and stimulus-response associations, respectively. We examined the impact that prior cocaine self-administration had on firing in dorsal lateral striatum (DLS), a brain area known to be involved in habit formation and affected by drugs of abuse, during performance of a complex reward-guided decision-making task. Surprisingly, we found that previous cocaine exposure enhanced R-O associations in DLS. This suggests that there may be more complex consequences of drug abuse than current theories have explored, especially when examining brain and behavior in the context of a complex two-choice decision-making task.
action-value, cocaine, decision, dorsal striatum, rat, single neuron
Prior Cocaine Self-Administration Increases Response-Outcome Encoding That Is Divorced from Actions Selected in Dorsal Lateral Striatum
Amanda C. Burton,1,2 Gregory B. Bissonette,1 Adam C. Zhao,1 Pooja K. Patel,1 and Matthew R. Roeschcorresponding author1,2
2017 Aug 9;