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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:6758-51-6) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
The ultrastructural distribution of alpha-actinin was studied in cultured hamster heart cells by immunogold replica electron microscopy. This technique enabled us to localize alpha-actinin within the cytoskeletal networks at high resolution and in three dimensions. Colloidal gold, indicating the presence of alpha-actinin, was localized on the Z bands of nascent myofibrils in myocytes and on stress fiber bundles in nonmuscle cells. alpha-Actinin staining was also seen on stellate foci, where cytoskeletal filaments converged along the inner myocyte cell membranes. Intermediate filaments were associated with Z bands of myofibrils, stress fibers, and subplasmalemmal actin networks at the specific points where alpha-actinin was localized on these structures. Heavy meromyosin treatment prior to immunostaining confirmed that the thin filaments contained actin. These results suggest that alpha-actinin serves to interlink these various cytoskeletal elements. In addition, this protein may be involved in the initial phases of filament organization during myofibrillogenesis along the inner surface of the myocyte plasma membrane.
Three-dimensional immunogold localization of alpha-actinin within the cytoskeletal networks of cultured cardiac muscle and nonmuscle cells.
Y Isobe, F D Warner, and L F Lemanski
We have studied the sequence and function of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nef genes from nine patients with highly divergent rates of disease progression enrolled in a longitudinal study of HIV disease. Over an average of 7.8 years of follow-up, three patients had net positive changes in CD4+ T-cell counts, three patients had net negative changes in CD4+ T cells but did not develop AIDS, and three patients progressed to AIDS. The nef gene from each of these patients was amplified and cloned, and the sequence of 8 to 10 clones was determined. Only 2 of 88 (2.3%) nef genes recovered from these nine patients were grossly defective. Moreover, there was no relationship between the phylogeny of nef sequences and the corresponding rates of disease progression from these patients. Representative nef genes from all nine patients were tested for their abilities to downregulate cell surface CD4 in a transient-transfection assay. There was no correlation found between the functions of the nef genes from these patients and their corresponding rates of disease progression. We conclude that the nef gene is not a common mediator of the rate of HIV disease progression in natural infection.
Functional characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nef genes in patients with divergent rates of disease progression.
N L Michael, G Chang, L A d'Arcy, C J Tseng, D L Birx, and H W Sheppard
Guide RNAs (gRNAs) have been proposed to mediate uridine (U) addition/deletion editing of mitochondrial mRNAs in kinetoplastid protozoa. The Us are proposed to be derived either from UTP by two successive cleavage-ligations or transesterifications, or from the 3′ end of the gRNA by the same mechanisms. We have demonstrated gRNA-dependent U insertions into a specific editing site of a pre-edited mRNA which was incubated in a mitochondrial extract from Leishmania tarentolae. The predominant number of U insertions was determined by the number of guiding nucleotides in the added gRNA, and the formation of a gRNA-mRNA anchor duplex was necessary for activity. UTP and alpha-beta bond hydrolysis of ATP were required, and the activity was inhibited above 50-100 mM KCl. A gRNA-independent insertion of up to approximately 13 Us occurred in the absence of the added cognate gRNA; the extent of this activity was affected by sequences upstream and downstream of the edited region. Heparin inhibited the gRNA-independent U insertion activity and had no effect on the gRNA-dependent activity. Blocking the 3′ OH of the gRNA had little effect on the gRNA-dependent U insertion activity. The data are consistent with a cleavage-ligation model in which the Us are derived directly from UTP.
Guide RNA-directed uridine insertion RNA editing in vitro.
E M Byrne, G J Connell, and L Simpson
1996 Dec 2;