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Early growth response transcription factor Egr1 controls multiple aspects of cell physiology and metabolism. In particular, Egr1 suppresses lipolysis and promotes fat accumulation in adipocytes by inhibiting the expression of adipose triglyceride lipase. According to current dogma, regulation of the Egr1 expression takes place primarily at the level of transcription. Correspondingly, treatment of cultured adipocytes with insulin stimulates expression of Egr1 mRNA and protein. Unexpectedly, the MEK inhibitor PD98059 completely blocks insulin-stimulated increase in the Egr1 mRNA but has only a moderate effect on the Egr1 protein. At the same time, mTORC1 inhibitors rapamycin and PP242 suppress expression of the Egr1 protein and have an opposite effect on the Egr1 mRNA. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts with genetic ablations of TSC2 or 4E-BP1/2 express less Egr1 mRNA but more Egr1 protein than wild type controls. 35S-labeling has confirmed that translation of the Egr1 mRNA is much more effective in 4E-BP1/2-null cells than in control. A selective agonist of the CB1 receptors, ACEA, up-regulates Egr1 mRNA, but does not activate mTORC1 and does not increase Egr1 protein in adipocytes. These data suggest that although insulin activates both the Erk and the mTORC1 signaling pathways in adipocytes, regulation of the Egr1 expression takes place predominantly via the mTORC1/4E-BP-mediated axis. In confirmation of this model, we show that 4E-BP1/2-null MEFs express less ATGL and accumulate more fat than control cells, while knock down of Egr1 in 4E-BP1/2-null MEFs increases ATGL expression and decreases fat storage.
adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), early growth response protein 1 (EGR1), insulin, lipolysis, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)
4E-BPs Control Fat Storage by Regulating the Expression of Egr1 and ATGL*
Maneet Singh,1 Yu-Kyong Shin,2 Xiaoqing Yang, Brad Zehr, Partha Chakrabarti,3 and Konstantin V. Kandror4
2015 Jul 10;
Autoimmunity appears to play a role in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) pathology. Although the chemokine CCL20 has been involved in autoimmune diseases, its relationship with the pathogenesis of AAA is unclear. We investigated CCL20 expression in AAA and evaluated it as a potential biomarker for AAA. CCL20 was measured in plasma of AAA patients (n = 96), atherosclerotic disease (AD) patients (n = 28) and controls (n = 45). AAA presence was associated with higher plasma levels of CCL20 after adjustments for confounders in the linear regression analysis. Diagnostic performance of plasma CCL20 was assessed by ROC curve analysis, AUC 0.768 (CI:0.678-0.858; p<0.001). Classification and regression tree analysis classified patients into two CCL20 plasma level groups. The high-CCL20 group had a higher number of AAA than the low-CCL20 group (91% vs 54.3%, p< 0.001). mRNA of CCL20 and its receptor CCR6 were higher in AAA (n = 89) than in control aortas (n = 17, p<0.001). A positive correlation was found between both mRNA in controls (R = 0674; p = 0.003), but not in AAA. Immunohistochemistry showed that CCR6 and CCL20 colocalized in the media and endothelial cells. Infiltrating leukocytes immunostained for both proteins but only colocalized in some of them. Our data shows that CCL20 is increased in AAA and circulating CCL20 is a high sensitive biomarker of AAA
Circulating CCL20 as a New Biomarker of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm
B. Soto,1,2 T. Gallastegi-Mozos,1 C. Rodriguez,3,4 J. Martinez-Gonzalez,4,5 J.-R. Escudero,1,2,4 L. Vila,1,4 and M. Camachocorresponding author1,4
Drug delivery and therapeutic challenges of gliclazide, a BCS class II drug used in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can be overcome by exploring smarter carriers of second-generation nanocrystals (SGNCs). A combined method of emulsion diffusion, high-pressure homogenization and solvent evaporation method were employed in the preparation of gliclazide loaded poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) SGNCs. Taguchi experimental design was adopted in fabrication of Gliclazide SGNc using Gliclazide -PLGA ratio at 1:0.5, 1:0.75, 1:1 with stabilizer (Poloxamer-188, PEG 4000, HPMC E15 at 0.5, 0.75, 1% w/v). The formulated gliclazide of SGNCs were investigated for physicochemical properties, in vitro drug release, and in vivo performance studies using type-2 diabetes rat model. The formulation (SGNCF1) with Drug: PLGA 1: 0.5 ratio with 0.5% w/v Poloxamer-188 produced optimized gliclazide SGNCs. SGNCF1 showed spherical shape, small particle size (106.3 ± 2.69 nm), good zeta potential (−18.2 ± 1.30 mV), small PDI (0.222 ± 0.104) and high entrapment efficiency (86.27 ± 0.222%). The solubility, dissolution rate and bioavailability of gliclazide SGNCs were significantly improved compared to pure gliclazide. The findings emphasize gliclazide SGNCs produce faster release initially, followed by delayed release with improved bioavailability, facilitate efficient delivery of gliclazide in T2DM with better therapeutic effect.
Subject terms: Type 2 diabetes, Drug delivery
Fabrication of Second Generation Smarter PLGA Based Nanocrystal Carriers for Improvement of Drug Delivery and Therapeutic Efficacy of Gliclazide in Type-2 Diabetes Rat Model
Bibhu Prasad Panda,corresponding author1 Rachna Krishnamoorthy,1 Subrat Kumar Bhattamisra,corresponding author2 Naveen Kumar Hawala Shivashekaregowda,3 Low Bin Seng,4 and Sujata Patnaik5