This product is isolated and purified from the herbs of Gnetum montanum Markgr.
471.8±35.0 °C at 760 mmHg
182 - 184ºC
HS Code Reference
Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:32507-66-7) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
In cancer cells, microRNAs (miRNAs) are often aberrantly expressed resulting in impaired mRNA translation. In this study we show that miR-193b and miR-30c-1* inhibit, whereas miR-576-5p accelerates invasion of various human melanoma cell lines. Using Boyden chamber invasion assays the effect of selected miRNAs on the invasive capacity of various human melanoma cell lines was analyzed. Upon gene expression profiling performed on transfected A375 cells, CTGF, THBS1, STMN1, BCL9, RAC1 and MCL1 were identified as potential targets. For target validation, qPCR, Western blot analyses or luciferase reporter assays were applied. This study reveals opposed effects of miR-193b / miR-30c-1* and miR-576-5p, respectively, on melanoma cell invasion and on expression of BCL9 and MCL1, possibly accounting for the contrasting invasive phenotypes observed in A375 cells transfected with these miRNAs. The miRNAs studied and their targets identified fit well into a model proposed by us explaining the regulation of invasion associated genes and the observed opposed phenotypes as a result of networked direct and indirect miRNA / target interactions. The results of this study suggest miR-193b and miR-30c-1* as tumor-suppressive miRNAs, whereas miR-576-5p appears as potential tumor-promoting oncomiR. Thus, miR-193b and miR-30c-1* mimics as well as antagomiRs directed against miR-576-5p might become useful tools in future therapy approaches against advanced melanoma.
melanoma, miRNA, invasion, BCL9, MCL1
miR-193b and miR-30c-1* inhibit, whereas miR-576-5p enhances melanoma cell invasion in vitro
Theresa Kordaß,1,2 Claudia E.M. Weber,1 David Eisel,1,2 Antonino A. Pane,1,2 Wolfram Osen,1 and Stefan B. Eichmuller1
2018 Aug 21
Since 1969, CDC has conducted abortion surveillance to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions in the United States.
Description of System
Each year, CDC requests abortion data from the central health agencies of 52 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City). The reporting areas provide this information voluntarily. For 2014, data were received from 49 reporting areas. For trend analysis, abortion data were evaluated from 48 areas that reported data every year during 2005-2014. Census and natality data, respectively, were used to calculate abortion rates (number of abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years) and ratios (number of abortions per 1,000 live births).
A total of 652,639 abortions were reported to CDC for 2014. Of these abortions, 98.4% were from the 48 reporting areas that provided data every year during 2005-2014. Among these 48 reporting areas, the abortion rate for 2014 was 12.1 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years, and the abortion ratio was 193 abortions per 1,000 live births. From 2013 to 2014, the total number and rate of reported abortions decreased 2%, and the ratio decreased 3%. From 2005 to 2014, the total number, rate, and ratio of reported abortions decreased 21%, 22%, and 18%, respectively. In 2014, all three measures reached their lowest level for the entire period of analysis (2005-2014).
In 2014 and throughout the period of analysis, women in their 20s accounted for the majority of abortions and had the highest abortion rates; women in their 30s and older accounted for a much smaller percentage of abortions and had lower abortion rates. In 2014, women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years accounted for 32.2% and 26.7% of all reported abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of 21.3 and 18.4 abortions per 1,000 women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years, respectively. In contrast, women aged 30-34, 35-39, and ≥40 years accounted for 17.1%, 9.7%, and 3.6% of all reported abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of 11.9, 7.2, and 2.6 abortions per 1,000 women aged 30-34 years, 35-39 years, and ≥40 years, respectively. From 2005 to 2014, the abortion rate decreased among women aged 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, and 35-39 years by 27%, 16%, 12%, and 5%, respectively, but increased 4% among women aged ≥40 years.
In 2014, adolescents aged <15 and 15-19 years accounted for 0.3% and 10.4% of all reported abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of 0.5 and 7.5 abortions per 1,000 adolescents aged <15 and 15-19 years, respectively. From 2005 to 2014, the percentage of abortions accounted for by adolescents aged 15-19 years decreased 38%, and their abortion rate decreased 49%. These decreases were greater than the decreases for women in any older age group. In contrast to the percentage distribution of abortions and abortion rates by age, abortion ratios in 2014 and throughout the entire period of analysis were highest among adolescents and lowest among women aged 30-39 years. Abortion ratios decreased from 2005 to 2014 for women in all age groups. In 2014, the majority (64.9%) of abortions were performed at ≤8 weeks’ gestation, and nearly all (91.0%) were performed at ≤13 weeks’ gestation. Few abortions were performed between 14 and 20 weeks’ gestation (7.7%) or at ≥21 weeks’ gestation (1.3%). During 2005-2014, the percentage of all abortions performed at ≤13 weeks’ gestation remained consistently high (≥90.9%). Among abortions performed at ≤13 weeks’ gestation, there was a shift toward earlier gestational ages, as the percentage performed at ≤6 weeks’ gestation increased 9%, and the percentage of all other gestational ages at ≤13 weeks’ gestation decreased 0%-12%. In 2014, among reporting areas that included medical (nonsurgical) abortion on their reporting form, 22.5% of all abortions were performed by early medical abortion (a nonsurgical abortion at ≤8 weeks’ gestation), 66.9% were performed by surgical abortion at ≤13 weeks’ gestation, and 9.1% were performed by surgical abortion at >13 weeks’ gestation; all other methods were uncommon (<1.5%). Among abortions performed at ≤8 weeks’ gestation that were eligible for early medical abortion on the basis of gestational age, 33.3% were completed by this method. In 2014, women with one or more previous live births accounted for 59.5% of abortions, and women with no previous live births accounted for 40.4%. Women with one or more previous induced abortions accounted for 44.9% of abortions, and women with no previous abortion accounted for 55.1%. Women with three or more previous births accounted for 13.8% of abortions, and women with three or more previous abortions accounted for 8.6% of abortions. Deaths of women associated with complications from abortion for 2014 are being assessed as part of CDC’s Pregnancy Mortality Surveillance System. In 2013, the most recent year for which data were available, four women were identified to have died as a result of complications from legal induced abortion. Interpretation Among the 48 areas that reported data every year during 2005-2014, the decreases in the total number, rate, and ratio of reported abortions that occurred during 2010-2013 continued from 2013 to 2014, resulting in historic lows for all three measures of abortion. Public Health Action The data in this report can help program planners and policymakers identify groups of women with the highest rates of abortion. Unintended pregnancy is the major contributor to induced abortion. Increasing access to and use of effective contraception can reduce unintended pregnancies and further reduce the number of abortions performed in the United States.
Abortion Surveillance — United States, 2014
Tara C. Jatlaoui, MD,1 Jill Shah, MPH,1,2 Michele G. Mandel,1 Jamie W. Krashin, MD,1 Danielle B. Suchdev, MPH,1 Denise J. Jamieson, MD,1 and Karen Pazol, PhD1
2018 Nov 23
Panax notoginseng, a famous herbal medicine, has recently attracted great attention on its safety and quality since P. notoginseng can accumulate and tolerate As from growing environment. For the purpose of understanding As damage to the quality of P. notoginseng as well as corresponding tolerance mechanisms, genes involved in As stress response were identified using Illumina sequencing.
Totally 91,979,946 clean reads were generated and were de novo assembled into 172,355 unigenes. A total of 81,575 unigenes were annotated in at least one database for their functions, accounting for 47.34 %. By comparative analysis, 1725 differentially expressed genes (DEGs, 763 up-regulated/962 down-regulated) were identified between As stressed plant (HAs) and control plant (CK), among which 20 DEGs were further validated by real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR). In the upstream and downstream steps of biosynthesis pathways of ginsenosides and flavonoids, 7 genes encoding key enzymes were down-regulated in HAs. Such down-regulations were also revealed in pathway enrichment analysis. Genes encoding transporters (transporters of ABC, MATE, sugar, oligopeptide, nitrate), genes related to hormone metabolism (ethylene, ABA, cytokinin) and genes related to arsenic accumulation (HXT, NRAMP, MT and GRX) were differentially expressed. The up-regulated genes included those of oxidative stress-related protein (GSTs, thioredoxin), transcription factors (HSFs, MYBs) and molecular chaperones (HSP).
The down-regulation of biosynthesis of ginsenoside and flavonoid indicated that As accumulation in P. notoginseng can cause not only safety hazard, but also qualitative losses. Aside from the results of arsenic content of seedling roots, the ability of P. notoginseng to over-accumulate arsenic can also be explained by the differential expression of genes of HXT, NRAMP, MT and GRX. To illustrate the detoxification mechanism of P. notoginseng, differential expression of genes encoding oxidative-related proteins, transcription factors, molecular chaperones, transporters and hormone were revealed in our study, which agreed with those reported in Arabidopsis to a certain extent, indicating P. notoginseng and Arabidopsis shared some common detoxification mechanisms in response to As stress. The longer As treatment in our study may account for the smaller quantity of related DEGs and smaller degree of expression differences of certain DEGs compared with those of Arabidopsis.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s40529-016-0128-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Panax notoginseng, Arsenic stress, Illumina sequence, Differential expressed genes (DEGs)
Illumina-based transcriptomic profiling of Panax notoginseng in response to arsenic stress
Yanfang Liu, Yanhua Mi,corresponding author Jianhua Zhang, Qiwan Li, and Lu Chen
2016 Jun 2.