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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:32727-29-0) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the most widely targeted gene family for Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs. To assess possible roles for GPCRs in cancer, we analyzed The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data for mRNA expression, mutations, and copy number variation (CNV) in 20 categories and 45 subtypes of solid tumors and quantified differential expression (DE) of GPCRs by comparing tumors against normal tissue from the Gene Tissue Expression Project (GTEx) database. GPCRs are overrepresented among coding genes with elevated expression in solid tumors. This analysis reveals that most tumor types differentially express >50 GPCRs, including many targets for approved drugs, hitherto largely unrecognized as targets of interest in cancer. GPCR mRNA signatures characterize specific tumor types and correlate with expression of cancer-related pathways. Tumor GPCR mRNA signatures have prognostic relevance for survival and correlate with expression of numerous cancer-related genes and pathways. GPCR expression in tumors is largely independent of staging, grading, metastasis, and/or driver mutations. GPCRs expressed in cancer cell lines largely parallel GPCR expression in tumors. Certain GPCRs are frequently mutated and appear to be hotspots, serving as bellwethers of accumulated genomic damage. CNV of GPCRs is common but does not generally correlate with mRNA expression. Our results suggest a previously underappreciated role for GPCRs in cancer, perhaps as functional oncogenes, biomarkers, surface antigens, and pharmacological targets.
GPCRs show widespread differential mRNA expression and frequent mutation and copy number variation in solid tumors
Krishna Sriram, Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Resources, Writing - original draft, Writing - review & editing,1 Kevin Moyung, Data curation, Formal analysis, Resources,1 Ross Corriden, Conceptualization, Writing - original draft, Writing - review & editing,1 Hannah Carter, Conceptualization, Methodology, Writing - original draft, Writing - review & editing,2 and Paul A. Insel, Methodology, Supervision, Writing - original draft, Writing - review & editing1,2,*
The complex composition of venom, a proteinaceous secretion used by diverse animal groups for predation or defense, is typically viewed as being driven by gene duplication in conjunction with positive selection, leading to large families of diversified toxins with selective venom gland expression. Yet, the production of alternative transcripts at venom genes is often overlooked as another potentially important process that could contribute proteins to venom, and requires comprehensive datasets integrating genome and transcriptome sequences together with proteomic characterization of venom to be fully documented. In the common house spider, Parasteatoda tepidariorum, we used RNA sequencing of four tissue types in conjunction with the sequenced genome to provide a comprehensive transcriptome annotation. We also used mass spectrometry to identify a minimum of 99 distinct proteins in P tepidariorum venom, including at least 33 latrotoxins, pore-forming neurotoxins shared with the confamilial black widow. We found that venom proteins are much more likely to come from multiple transcript genes, whose transcripts produced distinct protein sequences. The presence of multiple distinct proteins in venom from transcripts at individual genes was confirmed for eight loci by mass spectrometry, and is possible at 21 others. Alternative transcripts from the same gene, whether encoding or not encoding a protein found in venom, showed a range of expression patterns, but were not necessarily restricted to the venom gland. However, approximately half of venom protein encoding transcripts were found among the 1,318 transcripts with strongly venom gland biased expression. Our findings revealed an important role for alternative transcription in generating venom protein complexity and expanded the traditional model of venom evolution.
venom, transcriptome, toxins, Parasteatoda, alternative transcript
Alternative Transcription at Venom Genes and Its Role as a Complementary Mechanism for the Generation of Venom Complexity in the Common House Spider
Robert A. Haney,1,* Taylor Matte,2 FitzAnthony S. Forsyth,1 and Jessica E. Garb1
2019 Aug 20
Rotylenchulus reniformis was first detected in a single grid (100 m2) in May 2001 in a cotton field in Ashley County, AR, that was being utilized to evaluate the utility of grid-sampling for detection of Meloidogyne incognita. A total of 512 grids were sampled in the 6-ha field in the spring and fall for four years (2001 – 2004), nematode populations were determined for each grid, and nematode population density maps were constructed utilizing Global Positioning Systems and Geographic Information Systems. In May 2001, R. reniformis population density in the single grid where it was detected was 6,364 juveniles and adult reniform nematodes/500 cm3 soil. By the end of the first year (October 2001), the nematode was found in 17 of the 512 plots with population densities ranging from 682 to 10,909 nematodes/500 cm3 soil. Over the course of the 4-yr period, reniform nematode incidence increased to 107 of 512 plots, with population density ranging from 227 to 32,727 nematodes/500 cm3 soil. Reniform nematode spread could be explained by the direction of tillage and water flow in the low end of the field. Highest population densities were observed in the areas of the field with soil types ranging from 54% to 60% silt fraction. In addition to R. reniformis, Meloidogyne incognita was commonly detected in many of the grids, and Tylenchorhynchus spp., Helicotylenchus spp., Paratrichodorus minor and Hoplolaimus magnistylus were detected occasionally.
Reniform nematode incidence, spatial correlation, soil texture, geographically weighted regression, management, detection, ecology
Spread of Rotylenchulus reniformis in an Arkansas Cotton Field Over a Four-Year Period
W. S. Monfort,,corresponding author1 T. L. Kirkpatrick,,2 and A. Mauromoustakos,3