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The goal of this study was to assess the prevalence and trends of anencephaly on the basis of a large population-based cases identified by the Liaoning Birth Defects Registry, which included 14 cities over a 10-year period. Anencephaly prevalence, percent change, average changeand the contribution rates of each city were calculated. Statistical analysis was undertaken on the basis of a Poisson regression model. A total of 1600 anencephaly cases were collected during the observational period (4.92/10,000 live births). On average, the prevalence decreased 10.15% each year; this overall time trend was statistically significant (P<0.01). The top three leading cities were Huludao (10.33 per 10,000 live births), Chaoyang (8.56 per 10,000 live births) and Fuxin (6.36 per 10,000 live births). In contrast, Anshan (2.64 per 10,000 live births), Dalian (2.79 per 10,000 live births) and Yingkou (3.46 per 10,000 live births) were the cities with the lowest prevalence. Of note, significantly decreasing trends were observed in half of these cities (n=7). Additionally, Benxi, Yingkou and Dalian were the major cities contributing to over one third of the decreasing trend in Liaoning province. In conclusion, this study provided evidence of the decreasing prevalence of anencephaly from 2006 to 2015 in Liaoning province. In the future, prevention efforts should be strengthened to further reduce the risk of anencephaly in areas with high rates.
anencephaly, Liaoning province, prevalence, time trend
Changing trends in the prevalence of anencephaly in Liaoning province of Northeast China from 2006-2015: data from a population-based birth defects registry
Ting-Ting Gong,1 Qi-Jun Wu,2 Yan-Ling Chen,3 Cheng-Zhi Jiang,4 Da Li,1 Jing Li,5 Li-Li Li,6 Chen Zhou,7 and Yan-Hong Huang5
2017 Aug 8
Similar phenotypic changes occur across many species as a result of domestication, e.g. in pigmentation and snout size. Experimental studies of domestication have concentrated on intense and directed selection regimes, while conditions that approximate the commensal and indirect interactions with humans have not been explored. We examine long-term data on a free-living population of wild house mice that have been indirectly selected for tameness by regular exposure to humans. In the course of a decade, this mouse population exhibited significantly increased occurrence of white patches of fur and decreased head length. These phenotypic changes fit to the predictions of the ‘domestication syndrome’.
commensalism, tameness, pigmentation, domestication syndrome, human, evolutionary rate
A longitudinal study of phenotypic changes in early domestication of house mice
Madeleine Geiger,1,2 Marcelo R. Sanchez-Villagra,1 and Anna K. Lindholm3
Cardiovascular disease, endothelial dysfunction, and oxidative stress are common complications among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). In addition to the average blood glucose concentration, glycemic variability may be an important factor for the development of chronic diabetes complications. Patients with T2DM are treated with various types of oral glucose-lowering drugs. Exercise is considered to benefit the health of both healthy and unhealthy individuals, which has been confirmed by a number of scientific research studies in which the participants’ health improved. Our general aim in this study will be to evaluate glucose variability after submaximal exercise test in patients receiving treatment with either vildagliptin or glibenclamide. The specific aims of this study are to evaluate the oxidative stress, endothelial function, and metabolic and cardiovascular responses to exercise under treatment with vildagliptin or glibenclamide. All these responses are important in patients with T2DM.
This study is a PROBE (Prospective, Randomized, Open-label, Blinded-Endpoint) design clinical trial.
The estimated sample needed is 20 patients with T2DM. In addition to the routine treatment (metformin), patients will receive a second drug orally for 12 weeks: the METV group will receive metformin plus vildagliptin (50 mg twice daily), and the METG group will receive metformin plus glibenclamide (5 to 10 mg twice daily.). Before and after intervention, evaluation of glycemic variability, endothelial function, oxidative stress, and metabolic and cardiovascular response will be performed at rest, during and after a submaximal exercise test (30 minutes, with an intensity based at 10% under the heart rate at the second threshold).
In addition to drug treatment, exercise is recommended for treatment of glycemic control in patients with T2DM, especially for its beneficial effects on blood glucose and HbA1c. Few studies have determined the effects of the association between exercise and oral glucose-lowering drugs. The study will be conducted to assess the metabolic and cardiovascular responses at rest, and during and after submaximal exercise in patients receiving one of two oral glucose-lowering drugs (vildagliptin or glibenclamide).
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01867502 study release date: May-17-2013.
Diabetes mellitus, Hypoglycemic agents, Exercise
Effects of vildagliptin compared with glibenclamide on glucose variability after a submaximal exercise test in patients with type 2 diabetes: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial, DIABEX VILDA
Aline Fofonka, Jorge Pinto Ribeiro, Karina Rabello Casali, and Beatriz D Schaancorresponding author