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We report on the potential application of NIR-to-NIR Nd3+-doped yttrium vanadate nanoparticles with both emission and excitation operating within biological windows as thermal sensors in 123-873 K temperature range. It was demonstrated that thermal sensing could be based on three temperature dependent luminescence parameters: the luminescence intensity ratio, the spectral line position and the line bandwidth. Advantages and limitations of each sensing parameter as well as thermal sensitivity and thermal uncertainty were calculated and discussed. The influence of Nd3+ doping concentration on the sensitivity of luminescent thermometers was also studied.
YVO4:Nd3+ nanophosphors as NIR-to-NIR thermal sensors in wide temperature range
I. E. Kolesnikov,corresponding author1,2 A. A. Kalinichev,1 M. A. Kurochkin,1 E. V. Golyeva,3,4 E. Yu. Kolesnikov,5 A. V. Kurochkin,1 E. Lahderanta,2 and M. D. Mikhailov4
A mechanism is proposed by which speciation may occur without the need to postulate geographical isolation of the diverging populations. Closely related species that occupy overlapping or adjacent ecological niches often have an almost identical genome but differ by chromosomal rearrangements that result in reproductive isolation. The mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint normally functions to prevent gametes with non-identical karyotypes from forming viable zygotes. Unless gametes from two individuals happen to undergo the same chromosomal rearrangement at the same place and time, a most improbable situation, there has been no satisfactory explanation of how such rearrangements can propagate. Consideration of the dynamics of the spindle assembly checkpoint suggest that chromosomal fission or fusion events may occur that allow formation of viable heterozygotes between the rearranged and parental karyotypes, albeit with decreased fertility. Evolutionary dynamics calculations suggest that if the resulting heterozygous organisms have a selective advantage in an adjoining or overlapping ecological niche from that of the parental strain, despite the reproductive disadvantage of the population carrying the altered karyotype, it may accumulate sufficiently that homozygotes begin to emerge. At this point the reproductive disadvantage of the rearranged karyotype disappears, and a single population has been replaced by two populations that are partially reproductively isolated. This definition of species as populations that differ from other, closely related, species by karyotypic changes is consistent with the classical definition of a species as a population that is capable of interbreeding to produce fertile progeny. Even modest degrees of reproductive impairment of heterozygotes between two related populations may lead to speciation by this mechanism, and geographical isolation is not necessary for the process.
Speciation, Spindle assembly checkpoint, Mathematical model, Evolution
The spindle assembly checkpoint and speciation
Robert C. Jackson1 and Hitesh B. Mistrycorresponding author2
The purpose of this study was to validate a patch-based image denoising method for ultra-low-dose CT images. Neural network with convolutional auto-encoder and pairs of standard-dose CT and ultra-low-dose CT image patches were used for image denoising. The performance of the proposed method was measured by using a chest phantom.
Materials and methods
Standard-dose and ultra-low-dose CT images of the chest phantom were acquired. The tube currents for standard-dose and ultra-low-dose CT were 300 and 10 mA, respectively. Ultra-low-dose CT images were denoised with our proposed method using neural network, large-scale nonlocal mean, and block-matching and 3D filtering. Five radiologists and three technologists assessed the denoised ultra-low-dose CT images visually and recorded their subjective impressions of streak artifacts, noise other than streak artifacts, visualization of pulmonary vessels, and overall image quality.
For the streak artifacts, noise other than streak artifacts, and visualization of pulmonary vessels, the results of our proposed method were statistically better than those of block-matching and 3D filtering (p-values < 0.05). On the other hand, the difference in the overall image quality between our proposed method and block-matching and 3D filtering was not statistically significant (p-value = 0.07272). The p-values obtained between our proposed method and large-scale nonlocal mean were all less than 0.05. Conclusion Neural network with convolutional auto-encoder could be trained using pairs of standard-dose and ultra-low-dose CT image patches. According to the visual assessment by radiologists and technologists, the performance of our proposed method was superior to that of large-scale nonlocal mean and block-matching and 3D filtering.
Computer science, Medical imaging
Convolutional auto-encoder for image denoising of ultra-low-dose CT
Mizuho Nishio,a,⁎ Chihiro Nagashima,a Saori Hirabayashi,a Akinori Ohnishi,b Kaori Sasaki,c Tomoyuki Sagawa,a Masayuki Hamada,a and Tatsuo Yamashitaa