This product is isolated and purified from the herbs of Rabdosia excisa (Maxim.)Hara
Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
514.0±50.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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An association between diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer mortality in a large retrospective cohort study of US railroad workers has previously been reported. However, specific information regarding cigarette smoking was unavailable.
Birth cohort, age, job, and cause of death specific smoking histories from a companion case-control study were used to impute smoking behavior for 39,388 railroad workers who died 1959-1996. Mortality analyses incorporated the effect of smoking on lung cancer risk.
The smoking adjusted relative risk of lung cancer in railroad workers exposed to diesel exhaust compared to unexposed workers was 1.22 (95% CI=1.12-1.32), and unadjusted for smoking the relative risk was 1.35 (95% CI=1.24-1.46).
These analyses illustrate the use of imputation in record-based occupational health studies to assess potential confounding due to smoking. In this cohort, small differences in smoking behavior between diesel exposed and unexposed workers did not explain the elevated lung cancer risk.
diesel exhaust, lung cancer, multiple imputation, smoking
Smoking imputation and lung cancer in railroad workers exposed to diesel exhaust
Eric Garshick, MD, MOH,1,2,* Francine Laden, ScD,2,3 Jaime E Hart, AB,2,3 Thomas J Smith, PhD,3 and Bernard Rosner, PhD2
2007 Sep 1.
Glucagon and the glucagon receptor are most important molecules control over blood glucose concentrations. These two molecules are very important to studies of type 2 diabetic patients. In literature, several classes of small molecule antagonists of the human glucagon receptor have been reported. Glucagon receptor antagonist could decrease hepatic glucose output and improve glucose control in diabetic patients. In this research, to identify novel and diverse leads for use in potent glucagon receptor antagonist design, a ligand-based pharmacophore modeling, was developed using the best conformations of training set compounds. The best five features pharmacophore model, called Hypo1, includes, hydrogen bond acceptors, two hydrophobic, and positive ionizable features, which has the highest correlation coefficient (0.805), cost difference (64.38), low RMS (2.148), as well as it shows a high goodness of fit and enrichment factor. The generated pharmacophore model has been validated by using a series of similar structures with varying affinities for the glucagon receptor. Then, the developed model has been applied as a search query in different database searching with the main objective of finding novel molecules which have the potential to be be modified into novel lead compounds. As a result, some hit molecules were introduced as final candidates by employing virtual screening and molecular docking procedure simultaneously. The results from pharmacophore modeling and molecular docking are complementary to each other and could serve as a useful way for the discovery of potent small molecules as glucagon receptor antagonist.
Glucagon Receptor Antagonist, Ligand-Based Pharmacophore Modeling, Computer Aided Drug Design, Docking, Virtual Screening
Discovery of Novel Glucagon Receptor Antagonists Using Combined Pharmacophore Modeling and Docking
Fataneh Jafari,a Amin Nowroozi,b and Mohsen Shahlaei*
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common disease which can cause troublesome symptoms and affect quality of life. In addition to esophageal complications, GERD may also be a risk factor for extra-esophageal complications. Both GERD and coronary artery disease (CAD) can cause chest pain and frequently co-exist. However, the association between GERD and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remain unclear. The purpose of the study was to compare the incidence of acute myocardial infarction in GERD patients with an age-, gender-, and comorbidity matched population free of GERD. We also examine the association of the risk of AMI and the use of acid suppressing agents in GERD patients.
We identified patients with GERD from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The study cohort comprised 54,422 newly diagnosed GERD patients; 269,572 randomly selected age-, gender-, comorbidity-matched subjects comprised the comparison cohort. Patients with any prior CAD, AMI or peripheral arterial disease were excluded. Incidence of new AMI was studied in both groups.
A total 1,236 (0.5%) of the patients from the control group and 371 (0.7%) patients from the GERD group experienced AMI during a mean follow-up period of 3.3 years. Based on Cox proportional-hazard model analysis, GERD was independently associated with increased risk of developing AMI (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.48; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.31-1.66, P < 0.001). Within the GERD group, patients who were prescribed proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) for more than one year had slightly decreased the risk of developing AMI, compared with those without taking PPIs (HR = 0.57; 95% CI: 0.31-1.04, P = 0.066). Conclusions This large population-based study demonstrates an association between GERD and future development of AMI, however, PPIs use only achieved marginal significance in reducing the occurrence of AMI in GERD patients. Further prospective studies are needed to evaluate whether anti-reflux medication may reduce the occurrence of acute ischemic event in GERD patients.
Risk of acute myocardial infarction in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease: A nationwide population-based study
Wei-Yi Lei,1,2 Jen-Hung Wang,3 Shu-Hui Wen,2,4 Chih-Hsun Yi,1 Jui-Sheng Hung,1 Tso-Tsai Liu,1 William C. Orr,5 and Chien-Lin Chen1,2,*