1,1,1,1-kestohexaose/Morinda Officinalis hexasaccharide
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For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:62512-19-0) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Crested wheatgrass is an important cool-season grass that has become naturalized in many semiarid regions of the western U.S. It provides ground cover and reduces soil erosion caused by water and wind. Additionally, crested wheatgrass produces important forage for livestock and wildlife on 6 to 8 million hectars of western rangeland. It is well adapted to semiarid cold desert regions because of its cool temperature growth and drought tolerance. Understanding the biosynthesis of fructans in crested wheatgrass is important because of their likely role in both cool temperature growth and drought tolerance. Recent research described a major gene (6-SFT) in crested wheatgrass that is involved in fructan biosynthesis. 1-kestotriose, the major DP3 fructan in crested wheatgrass, serves as the substrate for the two major DP4 fructans, 1&6-kestotetraose and 1,1-kestotetraose. The three major DP5 fructans are 1&6,1-kestopentaose, 1,1&6-kestopentaose and 1,1,1-kestopentaose. The major DP6 fructan is 1&6, 1&6-kestohexaose. We postulate that 1&6,1&6-kestohexaose is synthesized from the addition of a fructose to 1&6, 1-kestopentaose. This paper provides structures of the various DP 3, 4, 5 and 6 fructan types produced by crested wheatgrass and provides suggested biosynthetic pathways for all major fructan linkage types present.
Fructans in crested wheatgrass leaves.
Chatterton NJ1, Hardson PA.
A family of novel endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs) assigned to the genus Proboscivirus have been identified as the cause of fatal hemorrhagic disease in 70 young Asian elephants worldwide. Although EEHV cannot be grown in cell culture, we have determined a total of 378 kb of viral genomic DNA sequence directly from clinical tissue samples from six lethal cases and two survivors. Overall, the data obtained encompass 57 genes, including orthologues of 32 core genes common to all herpesviruses, 14 genes found in some other herpesviruses, plus 10 novel genes, including a single large putative transcriptional regulatory protein (ORF-L). On the basis of differences in gene content and organization plus phylogenetic analyses of conserved core proteins that have just 20% to 50% or less identity to orthologues in other herpesviruses, we propose that EEHV1A, EEHV1B, and EEHV2 could be considered a new Deltaherpesvirinae subfamily of mammalian herpesviruses that evolved as an intermediate branch between the Betaherpesvirinae and Gammaherpesvirinae. Unlike cytomegaloviruses, EEHV genomes encode ribonucleotide kinase B subunit (RRB), thymidine kinase (TK), and UL9-like origin binding protein (OBP) proteins and have an alphaherpesvirus-like dyad symmetry Ori-Lyt domain. They also differ from all known betaherpesviruses by having a 40-kb large-scale inversion of core gene blocks I, II, and III. EEHV1 and EEHV2 DNA differ uniformly by more than 25%, but EEHV1 clusters into two major subgroups designated EEHV1A and EEHV1B with ancient partially chimeric features. Whereas large segments are nearly identical, three nonadjacent loci totaling 15 kb diverge by between 21 and 37%. One strain of EEHV1B analyzed is interpreted to be a modern partial recombinant with EEHV1A.
IMPORTANCE Asian elephants are an endangered species whose survival is under extreme pressure in wild range countries and whose captive breeding populations in zoos are not self-sustaining. In 1999, a novel class of herpesviruses called EEHVs was discovered. These viruses have caused a rapidly lethal hemorrhagic disease in 20% of all captive Asian elephant calves born in zoos in the United States and Europe since 1980. The disease is increasingly being recognized in Asian range countries as well. These viruses cannot be grown in cell culture, but by direct PCR DNA sequence analysis from segments totaling 15 to 30% of the genomes from blood or necropsy tissue from eight different cases, we have determined that they fall into multiple types and chimeric subtypes of a novel Proboscivirus genus, and we propose that they should also be classified as the first examples of a new mammalian herpesvirus subfamily named the Deltaherpesvirinae.
Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesviruses EEHV1A, EEHV1B, and EEHV2 from Cases of Hemorrhagic Disease Are Highly Diverged from Other Mammalian Herpesviruses and May Form a New Subfamily
Laura K. Richman,a,b Jian-Chao Zong,a Erin M. Latimer,b Justin Lock,c Robert C. Fleischer,c Sarah Y. Heaggans,a and Gary S. Haywardcorresponding authora
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most relevant opportunistic pathogens involved in many biofilm-associated diseases, and is a major cause of nosocomial infections, mainly due to the increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant strains. Consequently, alternative methods to eradicate the pathogen are urgent. It has been previously shown that polyvalent staphylococcal kayviruses and their derived endolysins are excellent candidates for therapy. Here we present the characterization of a new bacteriophage: vB_SauM-LM12 (LM12). LM12 has a broad host range (>90%; 56 strains tested), and is active against several MRSA strains. The genome of LM12 is composed of a dsDNA molecule with 143,625 bp, with average GC content of 30.25% and codes for 227 Coding Sequences (CDSs). Bioinformatics analysis did not identify any gene encoding virulence factors, toxins, or antibiotic resistance determinants. Antibiofilm assays have shown that this phage significantly reduced the number of viable cells (less than one order of magnitude). Moreover, the encoded endolysin also showed activity against biofilms, with a consistent biomass reduction during prolonged periods of treatment (of about one order of magnitude). Interestingly, the endolysin was shown to be much more active against stationary-phase cells and suspended biofilm cells than against intact and scraped biofilms, suggesting that cellular aggregates protected by the biofilm matrix reduced protein activity. Both phage LM12 and its endolysin seem to have a strong antimicrobial effect and broad host range against S. aureus, suggesting their potential to treat S. aureus biofilm infections.
Staphylococcus aureus, Kayvirus, bacteriophage, endolysin, biofilms
Characterization of a New Staphylococcus aureus Kayvirus Harboring a Lysin Active against Biofilms
Luis D. R. Melo, Ana Brand?o, Ergun Akturk, Silvio B. Santos, and Joana Azeredo*
1,1,1,1-Kestohexaose is a fructan oligomer isolated from Poa ampla.