8-[(1S,5R,6S)-6-(2,4-dihydroxybenzoyl)-5-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-methylcyclohex-2-en-1-yl]-2-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5,7-dihydroxy-3-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)chromen-4-one/Kuwanon G/Kuwanone G/kumanon G/4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 8-[(1S,5R,6S)-6-(2,4-dihydroxybenzoyl)-5-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-methyl-2-cyclohexen-1-yl]-2-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5,7-dihydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-/4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 8-[(1S,5R,6S)-6-(2,4-dihydroxybenzoyl)-5-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-methyl-2-cyclohexen-1-yl]-2-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5,7-dihydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-/Kuwanon/8-[(1S,5R,6S)-6-(2,4-Dihydroxybenzoyl)-5-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-methyl-2-cyclohexen-1-yl]-2-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5,7-dihydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-4H-chromen-4-one
942.4±65.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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Defects in the gut epithelial barrier have now been recognized to be responsible for diabetic endotoxemia. In everyday life, Mulberry leaf tea is widely used in Asian nations due to its proposed benefits to health and control of diabetes. Evidence indicates the potential role of Kuwanon G (KWG), a component from Morus alba L., on blocking the gut epithelial barrier. In lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-damaged Caco-2 cells, it was found that KWG increased the viability of cells in a concentration-dependent manner. KWG administration significantly elevated the anti-oxidant abilities via increasing ratio of superoxidase dismutase (SOD)/malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the cells. During KWG incubation, pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were significantly reduced, tight junction proteins including zonula occludens (ZO)-1, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and Occludin were dramatically increased as detected by immunofluorescence assay, trans-epithelial electrical resistance was significantly increased and the transmission of albumin-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) across the barrier was decreased. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that KWG could ameliorate LPS-induced disruption of the gut epithelial barrier by increasing cell viability and tight junction between cells, and decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative damage.
Kuwanon G; Morus alba L.; diabetes mellitus; gut epithelial barrier; inflammation.
Kuwanon G Preserves LPS-Induced Disruption of Gut Epithelial Barrier In Vitro
Hengli Guo 1 , Youhua Xu 2 3 , Wei Huang 4 5 6 , Hua Zhou 7 8 9 , Zhaoguang Zheng 10 , Yonghua Zhao 11 12 , Bao He 13 , Tingting Zhu 14 15 16 , Shanshan Tang 17 , Quan Zhu 18 19 20
2016 Nov 22
Background: Atherosclerosis is characterized by chronic inflammation in vascular wall. Previous studies suggest that Kuwanon G (KWG) exerts anti-inflammatory activities. However, the effect of KWG on atherosclerosis remains unexplored.
Aims: To explore whether KWG affects macrophage foam cell formation in vitro and atherogenesis in vivo.
Methods: RAW 264.7 macrophages were stimulated with ox-LDL for 24h to induce foam cell formation and treated with KWG. Foam cell formation was determined by ORO staining and enzymatic analysis. Pro-inflammatory cytokines mRNA levels were tested by Real-time PCR method. Further molecular mechanism was investigated using Western blot. In vivo, ApoE-/- mice were fed with high-fat diet and intraperitoneally injected with KWG. Atherosclerotic lesion was accessed by H&E and ORO staining. Plaque composition was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and Sirius Red staining. Serum lipid profile and inflammatory cytokines were evaluated by enzymatic method and ELISA.
Results: KWG significantly decreased intracellular lipid accumulation and inflammatory cytokines mRNA levels in macrophages through enhancing LXRα-ABCA1/ABCG1 pathway and inhibiting NFκB activation. Administrated with KWG remarkably reduced the atherosclerotic lesion areas and macrophage content in the plaque of high-fat diet fed ApoE-/- mice. KWG also reduced hyperlipidemia and serum inflammatory cytokines in vivo.
Conclusion: Taken together, these data highlight that KWG can attenuate atherosclerosis through inhibiting foam cell formation and inflammatory response.
Atherosclerosis; Foam cell formation; Inflammatory; Kuwanon G; Macrophages.
Kuwanon G Attenuates Atherosclerosis by Upregulation of LXRα-ABCA1/ABCG1 and Inhibition of NFκB Activity in Macrophages
Xiao-Xiao Liu 1 , Xiao-Wen Zhang 2 , Kai Wang 3 , Xue-Ying Wang 3 , Wen-Long Ma 4 , Wei Cao 5 , Dan Mo 3 , Yang Sun 1 , Xiao-Qiang Li 6
2018 Feb 15
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a prevalent chronic inflammatory skin disease. The use of immunomodulatory corticosteroids in AD treatment causes adverse side effects. Therefore, novel natural anti-inflammatory therapeutics are needed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory activities of kuwanon G and morusin. To investigate the effect of kuwanon G and morusin on skin inflammation, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) to quantitate secreted (RANTES/CCL5), thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17), and macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC/CCL22) were performed, followed by Western blotting to measure the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-stimulated HaCaT keratinocytes. In order to evaluate the anti-allergic effects, ELISA to quantify histamine and leukotriene C₄ (LTC₄) production and Western blotting to measure 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) activation were performed using PMA and A23187-stimulated MC/9 mast cells. Kuwanon G reduced the release of RANTES/CCL5, TARC/CCL17, and MDC/CCL22 via down-regulation of STAT1 and NF-κB p65 signaling in TNF-α and IFN-γ-stimulated HaCaT keratinocytes. Kuwanon G also inhibited histamine production and 5-LO activation in PMA and A23187-stimulated MC/9 mast cells. Morusin inhibited RANTES/CCL5 and TARC/CCL17 secretion via the suppression of STAT1 and NF-κB p65 phosphorylation in TNF-α and IFN-γ-stimulated HaCaT keratinocytes, and the release of histamine and LTC₄ by suppressing 5-LO activation in PMA and A23187-stimulated MC/9 mast cells. Kuwanon G and morusin are potential anti-inflammatory mediators for the treatment of allergic and inflammatory skin diseases such as AD.
Kuwanon G; anti-allergy; anti-skin inflammation; morusin.
Anti-Allergic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Kuwanon G and Morusin on MC/9 Mast Cells and HaCaT Keratinocytes
Seong Eun Jin 1 , Hyekyung Ha 2 , Hyeun-Kyoo Shin 3 , Chang-Seob Seo 4
2019 Jan 11