White crystalline powder
Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch
Licochalcone D, a flavonoid compound mainly existing in the root of Glycyrrhiza inflate, is a potent inhibitor of NF-kappaB (NF-κB) p65. Licochalcone D possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer properties.
Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
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Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:144506-15-0) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
A number of research groups have been investigating the use of dedicated breast computerized tomography (CT). Preliminary results have been encouraging, suggesting an improved visualization of masses on breast CT as compared to conventional mammography. Nonetheless, there are many challenges to overcome before breast CT can become a routine clinical reality. One potential improvement over current breast CT prototypes would be the use of photon counting detectors with cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) (or CdTe) semiconductor material. These detectors can operate at room temperature and provide high detection efficiency and the capability of multi-energy imaging; however, one factor in particular that limits image quality is the emission of characteristic x-rays. In this study, the degradative effects of characteristic x-rays are examined when using a CZT detector under breast CT operating conditions. Monte Carlo simulation software was used to evaluate the effect of characteristic x-rays and the detector element size on spatial and spectral resolution for a CZT detector used under breast CT operating conditions. In particular, lower kVp spectra and thinner CZT thicknesses were studied than that typically used with CZT based conventional CT detectors. In addition, the effect of characteristic x-rays on the accuracy of material decomposition in spectral CT imaging was explored. It was observed that when imaging with 50-60 kVp spectra, the x-ray transmission through CZT was very low for all detector thicknesses studied (0.5-3.0 mm), thus retaining dose efficiency. As expected, characteristic x-ray escape from the detector element of x-ray interaction increased with decreasing detector element size, approaching a 50% escape fraction for a 100 μm size detector element. The detector point spread function was observed to have only minor degradation with detector element size greater than 200 μm and lower kV settings. Characteristic x-rays produced increasing distortion in the spectral response with decreasing detector element size. If not corrected for, this caused a large bias in estimating tissue density parameters for material decomposition. It was also observed that degradation of the spectral response due to characteristic x-rays caused worsening precision in the estimation of tissue density parameters. It was observed that characteristic x-rays do cause some degradation in the spatial and spectral resolution of thin CZT detectors operating under breast CT conditions. These degradations should be manageable with careful selection of the detector element size. Even with the observed spectral distortion from characteristic x-rays, it is still possible to correctly estimate tissue parameters for material decomposition using spectral CT if accurate modeling is used.
Investigating the effect of characteristic x-rays in cadmium zinc telluride detectors under breast computerized tomography operating conditions
Stephen J. Glick1 and Clay Didier2
2013 Oct 14
Nabumetone is a prodrug that is converted in vivo into 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid (6MNA), a cyclooxygenase inhibitor with anti-inflammatory properties. We tested the effects of nabumetone and 6MNA on the inflammatory responses of synovial fibroblasts (SFs).
Brief exposures to 6MNA (50-150 μm) had no effect on IL-1β/TNF-α (each 20 ng ml−1)-stimulated Erk activation. Longer exposures depleted prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) as much as 70%, and stimulated Erk as much as 300%. Nabumetone (150 μm) inhibited Erk activation by 60-80%.
6MNA (50-150 μm) stimulated (≈200%) and nabumetone (150 μm) inhibited (≈50%) matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, but not MMP-13 secretion from SFs. 6MNA stimulation of MMP-1 secretion was inhibited ≈30% by PGE1 (1 μm) and ≈80% by the Erk pathway inhibitor UO126 (10 μm), confirming that PGE depletion and Erk activation mediate MMP-1 secretion by 6MNA.
Consistent with its role as an Erk inhibitor, nabumetone (150 μm) abrogated 6MNA enhancement of MMP-1 secretion.
UO126 (10 μm) and nabumetone (150 μm) inhibited (≈70 and 40%, respectively), but 6MNA (150 μm) enhanced (≈40%), NF-κB activation.
Our data indicate that 6MNA shares with other COX inhibitors several proinflammatory effects on synovial fibroblasts. In contrast, nabumetone demonstrates anti-inflammatory and potentially arthroprotective effects that have not been previously appreciated.
6MNA, nabumetone, Erk, synoviocyte, matrix metalloproteinase, prostaglandin, cyclooxygenase, MAP kinase, NF-κB
Regulation of metalloproteinases and NF-κB activation in rabbit synovial fibroblasts via E prostaglandins and Erk: contrasting effects of nabumetone and 6MNA
Michael H Pillinger,1,2,3,* Victoria Dinsell,1,2,3 Beth Apsel,1,2,3 Sonia N Tolani,1,2,3 Nada Marjanovic,1,3 Edwin S L Chan,1 Paul Gomez,1,2 Robert Clancy,1,2 Lih-Fan Chang,1,3 and Steven B Abramson1,2
Cytospora species are destructive canker and dieback pathogens of woody hosts in natural and agroecosystems around the world. In this genus, molecular identification has been limited due to the paucity of multi-locus sequence typing studies and the lack of sequence data from type specimens in public repositories, stalling robust phylogenetic reconstructions. In most cases a morphological species concept could not be applied due to the plasticity of characters and significant overlap of morphological features such as spore dimensions and fruiting body characters. In this study, we employed a molecular phylogenetic framework with the inclusion of four nuclear loci (ITS, translation elongation factor 1-alpha, actin, and beta-tubulin) to unveil the biodiversity and taxonomy of this understudied important genus of plant pathogens. Phylogenetic inferences based on 150 Californian isolates revealed 15 Cytospora species associated with branch and twig cankers and dieback of almond, apricot, cherry, cottonwood, olive, peach, pistachio, plum, pomegranate, and walnut trees in California. Of the 15 species recovered in this study, 10 are newly described and typified, in addition to one new combination. The pathogenic status of the newly described Cytospora species requires further investigation as most species were associated with severe dieback and decline of diverse and economically important fruit and nut crops in California.
Cytosporaceae, Cytospora canker, Diaporthales, multigene phylogeny, new taxa, taxonomy
Molecular phylogeny of Cytospora species associated with canker diseases of fruit and nut crops in California, with the descriptions of ten new species and one new combination
Daniel P. Lawrence,1 Leslie A. Holland,1 Mohamed T. Nouri,2 Renaud Travadon,1 Ara Abramians,1 Themis J. Michailides,2 and Florent P. Trouillas2