Licochalcone E, a flavonoid compound isolated from Glycyrrhiza inflate, inhibits NF-κB and AP-1 transcriptional activity through the inhibition of AKT and MAPK activation.
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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:864232-34-8) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) of wheat grain leads to a reduction in grain yield and quality. The availability of markers for marker-assisted selection (MAS) of PHS resistance will serve to enhance breeding selection and advancement of lines for cultivar development. The aim of this study was to identify candidate regions and develop molecular markers for PHS resistance in wheat. This was achieved via high density mapping of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers from an Illumina 90 K Infinium Custom Beadchip in a doubled haploid (DH) population derived from a RL4452/‘AC Domain’ cross and subsequent detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for PHS related traits (falling number [FN], germination index [GI] and sprouting index [SI]). SNP marker sequences flanking QTL were used to locate colinear regions in Brachypodium and rice, and identify genic markers associated with PHS resistance that can be utilized for MAS in wheat.
A linkage map spanning 2569.4 cM was constructed with a total of 12,201 SNP, simple sequence repeat (SSR), diversity arrays technology (DArT) and expressed sequence tag (EST) markers. QTL analyses using Multiple Interval Mapping (MIM) identified four QTL for PHS resistance traits on chromosomes 3B, 4A, 7B and 7D. Sequences of SNPs flanking these QTL were subject to a BLASTN search on the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium (IWGSC) database (http://wheat-urgi.versailles.inra.fr/Seq-Repository). Best survey sequence hits were subject to a BLASTN search on Gramene (www.gramene.org) against both Brachypodium and rice databases, and candidate genes and regions for PHS resistance were identified. A total of 18 SNP flanking sequences on chromosomes 3B, 4A, 7B and 7D were converted to KASP markers and validated with matching genotype calls of Infinium SNP data.
Our study identified candidate genes involved in abscissic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) metabolism, and flowering time in four genomic regions of Brachypodium and rice respectively, in addition to 18 KASP markers for PHS resistance in wheat. These markers can be deployed in future genetic studies of PHS resistance and might also be useful in the evaluation of PHS in germplasm and breeding material.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12870-014-0340-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Wheat, Pre-harvest sprouting, Quantitative trait loci, Candidate genes
Identification of candidate genes, regions and markers for pre-harvest sprouting resistance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
Adrian L Cabral, Mark C Jordan,corresponding author Curt A McCartney, Frank M You, D Gavin Humphreys, Ron MacLachlan, and Curtis J Pozniak
We propose a novel pathway for the prebiotic synthesis of 2′-deoxynucleotides. Consideration of the constitutional chemical relationships between glycolaldehyde and β-mercapto-acetaldehyde, and the corresponding proteinogenic amino acids, serine and cysteine, led us to explore the consequences of the corresponding sulfur substitution for our previously proposed pathways leading to the canonical ribonucleotides. We demonstrate that just as 2-aminooxazole-an important prebiotic ribonucleotide precursor-is readily formed from glycolaldehyde and cyanamide, so is 2-aminothiazole formed from β-mercapto-acetaldehyde and cyanamide in water at neutral pH. Indeed, both the oxazole and the thiazole can be formed together in a one-pot reaction, and can be co-purified by crystallization or sublimation. We then show that 2-aminothiazole can take part in a 3-component carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction in water that leads to the diastereoselective synthesis of masked 2′-thiosugars regiospecifically tethered to purine precursors, which would lead to 2′-deoxynucleotides upon desulfurization. The possibility of an abiotic route to the 2′-deoxynucleotides provides a new perspective on the evolutionary origins of DNA. We also show that 2-aminothiazole is able to sequester, through reversible aminal formation, the important nucleotide precursors glycolaldehyde and glyceraldehyde in a stable, crystalline form.
Multicomponent Assembly of Proposed DNA Precursors in Water
Matthew W. Powner,*†§ Shao-Liang Zheng,‡ and Jack W. Szostak§
2012 Aug 22
Staphylococcus aureus is a bacterial pathogen that causes food poisoning, various infections, and sepsis. Effective strategies and new drugs are needed to control S. aureus associated infections due to the emergence and rapid dissemination of antibiotic resistance. In the present study, the antibacterial activity, potential mode of action, and applications of flavonoids from licorice were investigated. Here, we showed that glabrol, licochalcone A, licochalcone C, and licochalcone E displayed high efficiency against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Glabrol, licochalcone A, licochalcone C, and licochalcone E exhibited low cytotoxicity without hemolytic activity based on safety evaluation. Glabrol displayed rapid bactericidal activity with low levels of resistance development in vitro. Meanwhile, glabrol rapidly increased bacterial membrane permeability and dissipated the proton move force. Furthermore, we found that peptidoglycan, phosphatidylglycerol, and cardiolipin inhibited the antibacterial activity of glabrol. Molecular docking showed that glabrol binds to phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin through the formation of hydrogen bonds. Lastly, glabrol showed antibacterial activity against MRSA in both in vivo and in vitro models. Altogether, these results suggest that glabrol is a promising lead compound for the design of membrane-active antibacterial agents against MRSA and can be used as a disinfectant candidate as well.
Copyright © 2019 Wu, Yang, Liu, Peng, Qu, Li, Song, Zhu and Shen.
Antibacterial Effect and Mode of Action of Flavonoids From Licorice Against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
Wu SC1,2,3, Yang ZQ1, Liu F1, Peng WJ1, Qu SQ1, Li Q1, Song XB1, Zhu K1, Shen JZ1.
2019 Nov 5