Licoflavonol, a minor flavone from the roots of Glycyrrhiza uralensis, is an inhibitor of the Salmonella type III secretion system (T3SS).
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Obstructive sleep apnea often results in a wide range of comorbid conditions. Although some conditions have been clearly identified as comorbid, a full clinical pattern of associated diseases has not been systematically documented. This research aimed to reveal the full pattern of comorbid conditions associated with OSA by employing a data mining technique.
A large data repository (the New South Wales Inpatient Data Collection) collected between 1999 and 2004 was mined, and all clinical diagnoses were coded with ICD-10-AM codes.
A total of 60,197 cases (4% of total records) were identified as related to OSA (72.2% males, 27.8% females). OSA occurrence showed 2 peaks at 0-4 years and 55-59 years. A strikingly low occurrence was observed for the adolescent years. Conditions comorbid with OSA in adults by descending frequency were essential hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, type 2 diabetes, past or current tobacco use, and ischemic heart conditions. Obesity and OSA showed a similar time course of onset, with a latent period of 5 years for hypertension and type 2 diabetes and 15 years for chronic ischemic heart conditions. Comorbid conditions were predominantly of the cardiovascular, endocrine/metabolic and respiratory systems. The data also indicated OSA patients are high users of health services.
The data mining technique confirms the prevalence of the disease, describes the age distribution patterns and time courses of disease development from obesity and OSA to comorbid conditions, and implicates possible interrelationships among these conditions and high cost of treating OSA patients.
Huang QR; Qin Z; Zhang S; Chow CM. Clinical patterns of obstructive sleep apnea and its comorbid conditions: a data mining approach. J Clin Sleep Med 2008;4(6):543-550.
Obstructive sleep apnea, comorbidity, data mining, obesity, cardiovascular conditions, ICD-10, disease patterns
Clinical Patterns of Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Its Comorbid Conditions: A Data Mining Approach
Qi Rong Huang, Ph.D.,1 Zhenxing Qin, Ph.D.,2 Shichao Zhang, Ph.D.,2 and Chin Moi Chow, Ph.D.3
2008 Dec 15;
We sought to gain insights into the determinants of seasonal influenza vaccine (SIV) uptake by conducting an age-stratified analysis (18-64 and 65+) of factors associated with SIV uptake among at-risk adults registered to English practices. Records for at-risk English adults between 2011 and 2016 were identified using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink database. SIV uptake was assessed annually. The associations of patient, practice, and seasonal characteristics with SIV uptake were assessed via cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, using mixed-effects and general estimating equation logistic regression models. Overall SIV uptake was 35.3% and 74.0% for adults 18-64 and 65+, respectively. Relative to white patients, black patients were least likely to be vaccinated (OR18-64: 0.82 (95% CI: 0.80, 0.85); OR65+: 0.59 (95% CI: 0.56, 0.62)), while Asian patients among 18-64 year olds were most likely to be vaccinated (OR18-64: 1.10 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.13)). Females were more likely than males to be vaccinated among 18-64 year olds (OR18-64: 1.19 (95% CI: 1.18, 1.20)). Greater socioeconomic deprivation was associated with decreased odds of uptake among older patients (OR65+: 0.74 (95% CI: 0.71, 0.77)). For each additional at-risk condition, odds of uptake increased (OR18-64: 2.33 (95% CI: 2.31, 2.36); OR65+: 1.39 (95% CI: 1.38, 1.39)). Odds of uptake were highest among younger patients with diabetes (OR18-64: 4.25 (95% CI: 4.18, 4.32)) and older patients with chronic respiratory disease (OR65+: 1.60 (95% CI: 1.58, 1.63)), whereas they were lowest among morbidly obese patients of all ages (OR18-64: 0.68 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.70); OR65+: 0.97 (95% CI: 0.94, 0.99)). Prior influenza season severity and vaccine effectiveness were marginally predictive of uptake. Our age-stratified analysis uncovered SIV uptake disparities by ethnicity, sex, age, socioeconomic deprivation, and co-morbidities, warranting further attention by GPs and policymakers alike.
Seasonal influenza vaccine, Vaccine uptake, General practice, Determinants, Clinical Practice Research Datalink Abbreviations: CPRD, Clinical Practice Research Datalink; GP, general practitioner; IMD, Index of Multiple Deprivations; NHS, National Health Service; PHE, Public Health England; SES, socioeconomic status; UK, United Kingdom; VE, vaccine effectiveness; SIV, season influenza vaccine; WHO, World Health Organization
Patient and practice level factors associated with seasonal influenza vaccine uptake among at-risk adults in England, 2011 to 2016: An age-stratified retrospective cohort study
Matthew M. Loiacono,a,⁎ Salaheddin M. Mahmud,b,c Ayman Chit,a,d Robertus van Aalst,d,e Jeffrey C. Kwong,f,g,h,i,j Nicholas Mitsakakis,h,j Luke Skinner,k Edward Thommes,d,l Helene Bricout,m and Paul Grootendorsta
2020 Apr 9;
Self-harm is a potentially lethal symptom of borderline personality disorder (BPD) that often improves with dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). While DBT is effective for reducing self-harm in many patients with BPD, a small but significant number of patients either does not improve in treatment or ends treatment prematurely. Accordingly, it is crucial to identify factors that may prospectively predict which patients are most likely to benefit from and remain in treatment. In the present preliminary study, 29 actively self-harming patients with BPD completed brain-imaging procedures probing activation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) during impulse control prior to beginning DBT and after 7 months of treatment. Patients that reduced their frequency of self-harm the most over treatment displayed lower levels of neural activation in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) prior to beginning treatment, and they showed the greatest increases in activity within this region after 7 months of treatment. Prior to starting DBT, treatment non-completers demonstrated greater activation than treatment-completers in the medial PFC and right inferior frontal gyrus. Reductions in self-harm over the treatment period were associated with increases in activity in right DLPFC even after accounting for improvements in depression, mania, and BPD symptom severity. These findings suggest that pre-treatment patterns of activation in the PFC underlying impulse control may be prospectively associated with improvements in self-harm and treatment attrition for patients with BPD treated with DBT.
borderline personality disorder, self-harm, dialectical behavior therapy, prefrontal cortex, impulse control, fNIRS
Predicting Treatment Outcomes from Prefrontal Cortex Activation for Self-Harming Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder: A Preliminary Study
Anthony C. Ruocco,1,* Achala H. Rodrigo,1 Shelley F. McMain,2 Elizabeth Page-Gould,3 Hasan Ayaz,4,5,6 and Paul S. Links7