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Nuclear import of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) was analyzed in vitro with digitonin-permeabilized cells (S. A. Adam, R. Sterne-Marr, and L. Gerace, J. Cell Biol. 111:807-816, 1990). Indirect immunofluorescence methods were used to monitor the transport of GRs from rat hepatoma and fibroblast cell cytosol into HeLa nuclei. In vitro nuclear import of GRs was shown to be hormone dependent and to require ATP and incubation at ambient temperatures (i.e., 30 degrees C). Hormone-dependent dissociation of GR-bound proteins, such as the 90-kDa heat shock protein, hsp90, is part of an activation process that is obligatory for the expression of the receptor’s DNA-binding activity. Inhibition of in vitro GR activation by Na2MoO4 blocked hormone-dependent nuclear import, demonstrating that receptor activation is required for nuclear import. The addition to GR-containing cytosol of antiserum directed against the cytosolic 70-kDa heat shock protein, hsp70, while effective in blocking the nuclear import of simian virus 40 large tumor antigen (SV40 TAg), did not affect hormone-dependent nuclear import of endogenous, full-length GRs or an exogenously added truncated GR protein (i.e., XGR556) that lacks a hormone-binding domain but possesses a constitutively active nuclear localization signal sequence (NLS). Depletion of hsp70 from HeLa cell cytosol did not affect the nuclear import of exogenously added XGR556 but led to inhibition of SV40 TAg nuclear import. Thus, two closely related NLSs, one contained within GRs and the other contained within SV40 TAg, are distinguished by their differential requirements for hsp70 in vitro.
Differential roles of heat shock protein 70 in the in vitro nuclear import of glucocorticoid receptor and simian virus 40 large tumor antigen.
J Yang and D B DeFranco
A23187 is a carboxylic antibiotic that selectively transfers calcium, magnesium, and other divalent cations across biologic membranes. This ionophore was found to produce morphologic blast transformation, DNA synthesis, and mitosis in human lymphocytes. Several hours of ionophore-cell contact were necessary to produce optimal mitogenesis. The effects were highly dependent on the presence of extracellular calcium and much less dependent on extracellular magnesium. Lanthanum chloride prevented the development of the observed ionophore effects.
Results are consistent with the hypothesis that under physiologic conditions the interaction of antigens or mitogens with specific receptors at the lymphocyte membrane initiates events that alter calcium fluxes and result in increased cytoplasmic calcium. Increased cytoplasmic calcium is postulated to play a central role in the generation of surface-to-nuclear signals that initiate the process of DNA synthesis and cell division.
Mitogenic Properties of a Calcium Ionophore, A23187
John R. Luckasen, James G. White, and John H. Kersey
In Klebsiella pneumoniae, six genes, constituting the pqqABCDEF operon, which are required for the synthesis of the cofactor pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) have been identified. The role of each of these K. pneumoniae Pqq proteins was examined by expression of the cloned pqq genes in Escherichia coli, which cannot synthesize PQQ. All six pqq genes were required for PQQ biosynthesis and excretion into the medium in sufficient amounts to allow growth of E. coli on glucose via the PQQ-dependent glucose dehydrogenase. Mutants lacking the PqqB or PqqF protein synthesized small amounts of PQQ, however. PQQ synthesis was also studied in cell extracts. Extracts made from cells containing all Pqq proteins contained PQQ. Lack of each of the Pqq proteins except PqqB resulted in the absence of PQQ. Extracts lacking PqqB synthesized PQQ slowly. Complementation studies with extracts containing different Pqq proteins showed that an extract lacking PqqC synthesized an intermediate which was also detected in the culture medium of pqqC mutants. It is proposed that PqqC catalyzes the last step in PQQ biosynthesis. Studies with cells lacking PqqB suggest that the same intermediate might be accumulated in these mutants. By using pqq-lacZ protein fusions, it was shown that the expression of the putative precursor of PQQ, the small PqqA polypeptide, was much higher than that of the other Pqq proteins. Synthesis of PQQ most likely requires molecular oxygen, since PQQ was not synthesized under anaerobic conditions, although the pqq genes were expressed.
Synthesis of pyrroloquinoline quinone in vivo and in vitro and detection of an intermediate in the biosynthetic pathway.
J S Velterop, E Sellink, J J Meulenberg, S David, I Bulder, and P W Postma