White crystalline powder
plantule of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.
722.0±60.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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Promoting white-to-beige adipocyte transition is a promising approach for obesity treatment. Although Liensinine (Lie), a kind of isoquinoline alkaloid, has been reported to affect white-to-beige adipocyte transition, its effects on inhibiting beige adipocytes recovering to white adipocytes and maintaining the characteristics of beige adipocyte remain unclear. Therefore, we explored the effects and underlying mechanism of Lie on beige adipocyte maintenance in vitro and in vivo. Here, we first demonstrated that after white adipocytes turned to beige adipocytes by rosiglitazone (Rosi) stimuli, beige adipocytes gradually lost their characteristics and returned to white adipocytes again once Rosi was withdrawn. We found that Lie retained high levels of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation complex I, II, III, IV and V (COX I-V), oxygen consumption rate (OCR) after Rosi withdrawal. In addition, after Rosi withdrawal, the beige-to-white adipocyte transition was coupled to mitophagy, while Lie inhibited mitophagy flux by promoting the accumulation of pro-cathepsin B (pro-CTSB), pro-cathepsin D (pro-CTSD) and pro-cathepsin L (pro-CTSL), ultimately maintaining the beige adipocytes characteristics in vitro. Moreover, through blocking mitophagy flux, Lie significantly retained the molecular characteristics of beige adipocyte, reduced body weight gain rate and enhanced energy expenditure after stimuli withdrawal in vivo. Together, our data showed that Lie inhibited lysosomal cathepsin activity by promoting the accumulation of pro-CTSB, pro-CTSD and pro-CTSL, which subsequently inhibited mitophagy flux, and ultimately inhibited the beige adipocytes recovering to white adipocytes and maintained the characteristics of beige adipocyte after stimuli withdrawal. In conclusion, by blocking lysosome-mediated mitophagy, Lie inhibits beige adipocytes recovering to white adipocytes and may be a potential candidate for preventing high fat diet induced obesity.
beige adipocyte; cathepsin protein; liensinine; mitophagy; obesity
Liensinine Inhibits Beige Adipocytes Recovering to white Adipocytes through Blocking Mitophagy Flux In Vitro and In Vivo.
Xie S1, Li Y1, Teng W1, Du M2, Li Y1,3, Sun B4.
2019 Jul 18
Gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) is the most common and aggressive cancer of the biliary tract. Liensinine has been proved to have hypotensive effect. However, the effect of liensinine on GBC is still unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect and mechanism of liensinine in human GBC cells. Cell viability assay and colony formation assay were performed to assess cell growth and proliferation. Flow cytometry analysis was used to investigate cell cycle apoptosis in vitro. Hoechst 33342 staining was also used to evaluate cell apoptosis. Western blot analysis was used to determine the expression of proteins corresponding to the related cell cycle and apoptosis. The effect of liensinine treatment in vivo was experimented with xenografted tumors. We found that liensinine significantly inhibited the growth of GBC cells both in vivo and in vitro. In vitro, cell growth and proliferation were significantly suppressed by liensinine in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In vivo, liensinine inhibited tumor growth. Liensinine could induce GBC cells G2/M phase arrest by up-regulating the levels of Cyclin B1 and CDK1 proteins. Liensinine also affected GBC cell cycle progression and induced apoptosis by down-regulating phosphorylated protein kinase B (AKT), phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-AKT), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and Zinc finger X-chromosomal protein (ZFX) proteins. Liensinine induced G2/M arrest and apoptosis in gallbladder cancer, suggesting that liensinine might represent a novel and effective agent against gallbladder cancer.
© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
PI3K/AKT pathway; ZFX; apoptosis; gallbladder cancer; liensinine
Liensinine induces gallbladder cancer apoptosis and G2/M arrest by inhibiting ZFX-induced PI3K/AKT pathway.
Shen Y1,2,3,4, Bian R1,2,3, Li Y1,2,3, Gao Y1,2,3, Liu Y1,2,3, Xu Y5, Song X1,2,3, Zhang Y1,2,3.
2019 Jun 20
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide with poor survival and limited therapeutic options, and there is an urgent need to develop novel therapeutic agents with good treatment efficiency and low toxicity. This study aims to examine the anticancer bioactivity of liensinine, a constituent of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn, in CRC and investigate the action mechanisms involved.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
Liensinine was found to induce apoptosis and exert a significant inhibitory effect on the proliferation and colony-forming ability of CRC cells in a dose-dependent manner without any observed cytotoxicity on normal colorectal epithelial cells. Mechanistically, our data from quantitative proteomics, western blot analysis and flow cytometry analyses demonstrated that exposure of CRC cells to liensinine caused cell cycle arrest, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis, accompanied by the activation of the JNK signaling pathway. Furthermore, animal experiments showed that liensinine markedly suppressed the growth of CRC tumor xenografts in nude mice by reducing the Ki-67 proliferation index, but did not damage the vital organs of the animals.
This study demonstrated for the first time that liensinine, a food-source natural product, could be a novel therapeutic strategy for treating CRC without obvious side effects.
Liensinine perchlorate inhibits colorectal cancer tumorigenesis by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis.
Wang Y 1, Li YJ , Huang XH , Zheng CC , Yin XF , Li B , He QY .
2018 Nov 14