Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
175.4±20.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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Fragranced consumer products have been associated with adverse effects on human health. Babies are exposed to a variety of fragranced consumer products, which can emit numerous volatile organic compounds (VOCs), some considered potentially hazardous. However, fragranced baby products are exempt from disclosure of all ingredients. Consequently, parents and the public have little information on product emissions. This study investigates VOCs emitted from a range of fragranced baby products, including baby hair shampoos, body washes, lotions, creams, ointments, oils, hair sprays, and fragrance. The products were analysed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) headspace analysis. Of the 42 baby products tested, 21 products made claims of green, organic, or all-natural. Results of the analysis found 684 VOCs emitted collectively from the 42 products, representing 228 different VOCs. Of these 684 VOCs, 207 are classified as potentially hazardous under federal regulations, representing 43 different VOCs. The most common VOCs emitted were limonene, acetaldehyde, ethanol, alpha-pinene, linalool, beta-myrcene, acetone, and beta-pinene. A comparison between ingredients emitted and ingredients listed reveals that only 5% of the 684 VOCs, including 12% of 207 potentially hazardous VOCs, were listed on the product label, safety data sheet, or website. More than 95% of both green and regular products emitted one or more potentially hazardous VOCs. Further, emissions of the most prevalent VOCs from green, organic, or all-natural products were not significantly different from regular products. Results from this study can help improve public awareness about emissions from baby products, with the aim to reduce pollutant exposure and potential adverse effects on babies.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (10.1007/s11869-018-0593-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Baby products, Fragrance, Volatile organic compounds, Emissions, Ingredients
Volatile chemical emissions from fragranced baby products
Neda Nematollahi,corresponding author1,2 Augustine Doronila,2 Patrick J. Mornane,2 Alex Duan,2 Spas D. Kolev,2 and Anne Steinemann1,3,4
Most e-cigarette liquids contain flavour chemicals. Flavour chemicals certified as safe for ingestion by the Flavor Extracts Manufacturers Association may not be safe for use in e-cigarettes. This study identified and measured flavour chemicals in 30 e-cigarette fluids.
Two brands of single-use e-cigarettes were selected and their fluids in multiple flavour types analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. For the same flavour types, and for selected confectionary flavours (eg, bubble gum and cotton candy), also analysed were convenience samples of e-cigarette fluids in refill bottles from local ‘vape’ shops and online retailers.
In many liquids, total flavour chemicals were found to be in the ∼1-4% range (10-40 mg/mL); labelled levels of nicotine were in the range of 0.6-2.4% (6 to 24 mg/mL). A significant number of the flavour chemicals were aldehydes, a compound class recognised as ‘primary irritants’ of mucosal tissue of the respiratory tract. Many of the products contained the same flavour chemicals: vanillin and/or ethyl vanillin was found in 17 of the liquids as one of the top three flavour chemicals, and/or at ≥0.5 mg/mL.
The concentrations of some flavour chemicals in e-cigarette fluids are sufficiently high for inhalation exposure by vaping to be of toxicological concern. Regulatory limits should be contemplated for levels of some of the more worrisome chemicals as well as for total flavour chemical levels. Ingredient labeling should also be required.
Nicotine, Packaging and Labelling, Toxicology, Electronic nicotine delivery devices
Flavour chemicals in electronic cigarette fluids
Peyton A Tierney,1 Clarissa D Karpinski,2 Jessica E Brown,1 Wentai Luo,2 and James F Pankow1,2
Explorative experiments were done to figure out differences in the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of not infested trees and trees infested by Anoplophora glabripennis (Asian longhorn beetle, ALB), a quarantine pest. Therefore, VOCs from some native insect species, Anoplophora glabripennis infested Acer, stressed Acer, healthy Acer, Populus and Salix were obtained by enrichment on adsorbents. Qualitative analysis was done by thermal desorption gas chromatography coupled with a mass selective detector (TD-GC/MS). Altogether 169 substances were identified. 11 substances occur from ALB infested or mechanically damaged trees i.e. stressed trees, but not from healthy trees. (+)-Cyclosativene, (+)-α-longipinene, copaene and caryophyllene are detectable only from ALB-infested Acer not from mechanically damaged or healthy Acer. However, these substances are also emitted by healthy Salix. 2,4-Dimethyl-1-heptene is among all tree samples exclusively present in the ambience of ALB-infested trees. It´s rarely detectable from native insect species’ samples.
Subject terms: Chemical biology, Plant sciences
Identification of Anoplophora glabripennis (Moschulsky) by its emitted specific volatile organic compounds
Ramona Makarow,corresponding author Sara Schafer, and Peter Kaul