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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:18286-71-0) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
The ability to detect unusual events occurring in the environment is essential for survival. Several studies have pointed to the hippocampus as a key brain structure in novelty detection, a claim substantiated by its wide access to sensory information through the entorhinal cortex and also distinct aspects of its intrinsic circuitry. Novelty detection is implemented by an associative match-mismatch algorithm involving the CA1 and CA3 hippocampal subfields that compares the stream of sensory inputs received by CA1 to the stored representation of spatiotemporal sequences in CA3. In some rodents, including the rat, the highly sensitive facial whiskers are responsible for providing accurate tactile information about nearby objects. Surprisingly, however, not much is known about how inputs from the whiskers reach CA1 and how they are processed therein. Using concurrent multielectrode neuronal recordings and chemical inactivation in behaving rats, we show that trigeminal inputs from the whiskers reach the CA1 region through thalamic and cortical relays associated with discriminative touch. Ensembles of hippocampal neurons also carry precise information about stimulus identity when recorded during performance in an aperture-discrimination task using the whiskers. We also found broad similarities between tactile responses of trigeminal stations and the hippocampus during different vigilance states (wake and sleep). Taken together, our results show that tactile information associated with fine whisker discrimination is readily available to the hippocampus for dynamic updating of spatial maps.
multielectrode recording, rat, somatosensory, width discrimination, sensory pathways
Processing of tactile information by the hippocampus
Antonio Pereira,*† Sidarta Ribeiro,‡§ Michael Wiest,†¶ Leonardo C. Moore,† Janaina Pantoja,† Shih-Chieh Lin,† and Miguel A. L. Nicolelis†‡¶**‖††‡‡
2007 Nov 13;
Serum immunoglobulin A antibodies against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), viral capsid antigen (VCA-IgA) and early antigen (EA-IgA), are used to screen for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in endemic areas. However, their routine use has been questioned because of a lack of specificity. This study aimed to determine the distributions of different subtypes of antibody and to illustrate how the natural variation patterns affect the specificity of screening in non-NPC participants.
The distribution of baseline VCA-IgA was analyzed between sexes and across 10-year age groups in 18,286 non-NPC participants using Chi square tests. Fluctuations in the VCA-IgA level were assessed in 1056 non-NPC participants with at least two retests in the first 5-year period (1987-1992) after the initial screening using the Kaplan-Meier method.
The titers of VCA-IgA increased with age (P < 0.001). Using a previous serological definition of high NPC risk, nasopharyngeal endoscopy and/or nasopharyngeal biopsy would be recommended in 55.5% of the non-NPC participants with an initial VCA-IgA-positive status and in 20.6% with an initial negative status during the 5-year follow-up. However, seroconversions were common; 85.2% of the participants with a VCA-IgA-positive status at baseline converted to negative, and all VCA-IgA-negative participants changed to positive at least once during the 5-year follow-up. The EA-IgA status had a high seroconversion probability (100%) from positive to negative; however, it had a low probability (19.6%) from negative to positive. Conclusions Age- and sex-specific cutoff titer values for serum anti-EBV antibodies as well as their specific titer fluctuation patterns should be considered when defining high NPC risk criteria for follow-up diagnostics and monitoring.
Epstein-Barr virus, Nasopharyngeal carcinoma, Cohort study, Mass screening, Fluctuation
Subtype distribution and long-term titer fluctuation patterns of serum anti-Epstein-Barr virus antibodies in a non-nasopharyngeal carcinoma population from an endemic area in South China: a cohort study
Jin-Lin Du,#1,2,3,4 Sui-Hong Chen,#1,2,3 Qi-Hong Huang,5 Shang-Hang Xie,1,2 Yan-Fang Ye,1,2,3 Rui Gao,1,2,3 Jie Guo,1,2,3 Meng-Jie Yang,1,2 Qing Liu,1,2 Ming-Huang Hong,corresponding author1,2,6 and Su-Mei Caocorresponding author1,2
The absolute stereostructure of luminamicin, an anaerobic antibiotic, has been determined by using conformational analysis via high-temperature molecular dynamics, NMR spectroscopy, and the modified Mosher method. It was found that luminamicin has the S, S, R, R, R, R, S, S, S, R, and S configurations at C2, C4, C7, C9, C10, C11, C12, C13, C16, C28, and C29, respectively. This configuration is the same as that found in nodusmicin, which has a chemical structure quite similar to luminamicin. The structure of luminamicin consists of three different rings, i.e., a decalin ring, a 10-membered macrolactone ring, and a 14-membered macrolactone ring. The resulting three-dimensional structure of luminamicin shows an interesting feature in that the maleic anhydride functionality in conjugation with the enol ether group of the 14-membered macrolactone is nearly perpendicular to the plane of the other two rings.
Stereostructure of luminamicin, an anaerobic antibiotic, via molecular dynamics, NMR spectroscopy, and the modified Mosher method
Hiroaki Gouda,* Toshiaki Sunazuka,† Hideaki Ui,* Masaki Handa,* Yusuke Sakoh,* Yuzuru Iwai,† Shuichi Hirono,*‡ and Satoshi Ōmura†‡
2005 Dec 20