4-[(2S)-7-Hydroxy-4-oxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-chromen-2-yl]phenyl 2-O-[(2S,3R,4R)-3,4-dihydroxy-4-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydro-2-furanyl]-β-D-glucopyranoside/4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-[4-[[2-O-[(2S,3R,4R)-tetrahydro-3,4-dihydroxy-4-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furanyl]-β-D-glucopyranosyl]oxy]phenyl]-, (2S)-/Liquiritin apioside
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Liquiritin apioside (LA), a main flavonoid component of licorice, reportedly suppresses cough responses to inhalation of aerosolized capsaicin [CAP; a stimulant to transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1)] in conscious guinea pigs via acting on peripheral nerves. However, the evidence of LA having a direct effect on airway sensory fibers is lacking. Considering the important role laryngeal chemoreceptors and mechanoreceptors play in triggering apnea and cough, we studied whether LA suppressed the apneic responses to stimulation of these receptors via directly acting on the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN). Intralaryngeal delivery of chemical [CAP, HCl, and distilled water (DW)] and mechanical [an air-pulse (AP)] stimulations was applied in anesthetized rat pups to evoke the apnea. These stimuli were repeated after intralaryngeal LA treatment or peri-SLN LA treatment to determine the direct effect of LA on the SLN. Our results showed that all stimuli triggered an immediate apnea. Intralaryngeal LA treatment significantly attenuated the apneic response to chemical but not mechanical stimulations. The same attenuation was observed after peri-SLN LA treatment. Owing that TRPV1 receptors of laryngeal C fibers are responsible for the CAP-triggered apneas, the LA impact on the activity of laryngeal C neurons retrogradely traced by DiI was subsequently studied using a patch-clamp approach. LA pretreatment significantly altered the electrophysiological kinetics of CAP-induced currents in laryngeal C neurons by reducing their amplitudes, increasing the rise times, and prolonging the decay times. In conclusion, our results, for the first time, reveal that LA suppresses the laryngeal chemoreceptor-mediated apnea by directly acting on the SLN (TRPV1 receptors of laryngeal C fibers).
TRPV1; chemoreceptor; mechanoreceptor; superior laryngeal nerve
Liquiritin apioside attenuates laryngeal chemoreflex but not mechanoreflex in rat pups.
Wei W1,2, Gao X1, Zhao L1, Zhuang J1, Jiao Y3, Xu F1.
2020 Jan 1
Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this study, we hypothesized that liquiritin apioside (LA), a main flavonoid component from Glycyrrhiza uralensis, had antioxidant properties by inducing glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis via the inhibition of cytokines and protected lung epithelial cells against cigarette smoke-mediated oxidative stress. A549 cells were treated with cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and/or LA. ICR mice were exposed to cigarette smoke (CS) for four days with increasing exposure time for up to 6 h per day to elicit epithelial cells injury. One hour before smoke exposure, mice were treated with LA by gavage; 18 h after the last CS exposure all examinations were performed. Treatment with LA concentration-dependently prevented CSE-induced cytotoxicity, increase of TGF-β and TNF-α mRNA expression, depletion of GSH and apoptosis in A549 cells. LA at doses 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg dose-dependently inhibited pulmonary neutrophil and macrophage inflammation. Lung sections of the CS-exposed LA treated mice showed an apparently reduced pulmonary inflammation and a significant inhibitory effect on mucus containing goblet cells in the large airways. Furthermore, the CS-induced pulmonary release of TGF-β, TNF-α and myeloperoxidase activity was reduced, and superoxide dismutase activity was enhanced.These results indicate that protective roles of LA on CS-induced the lung epithelial cell injury are mediated by inhibiting TGF-β and TNF-α expression and increasing anti-oxidative levels of GSH, suggesting that LA might be effective as protective agent against epithelial injury in COPD.
© 2011 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2011 Societe Francaise de Pharmacologie et de Therapeutique.
Protective effects of liquiritin apioside on cigarette smoke-induced lung epithelial cell injury.
Guan Y1, Li FF, Hong L, Yan XF, Tan GL, He JS, Dong XW, Bao MJ, Xie QM.