White crystalline powder
Panax notoginseng,Polygonatum kingianum,Astragalus membranaceus,Glycyrrhiza uralensis,Lonicera japonica
Liquiritoside/(2S)-7-hydroxy-2-[4-[(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxyphenyl]-2,3-dihydrochromen-4-one/Likviritin/4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 2-(4-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)phenyl)-2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-, (S)-/4',7-Dihydroxyflavanone 4'-(β-D-glucoside)/(S)-2-(4-(β-D-Glucopyranosyloxy)phenyl)-2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one/4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 2-[4-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)phenyl]-2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-, (2S)-/4',7-Dihydroxyflavanone 4'-(β-D-glucopyranoside)/4-[(2S)-7-Hydroxy-4-oxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-chromen-2-yl]phenyl β-D-glucopyranoside/Liquiritin/liquiritigenin 4'-O-glucoside/Liquiritigenin-4'-O-glucoside
746.8±60.0 °C at 760 mmHg
HS Code Reference
Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:551-15-5) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
In recent years, asthma has increased dramatically in prevalence with a considerable economic burden all over the world. Long-term remission should be regarded as the promising and meaningful therapeutic goal in asthma management. However, the precise definition criteria and rational therapies for asthma remission have not been well-established. In academia, there is a consensus that even in those who develop asymptomatic remission of asthma, persistent airway inflammation is ubiquitous. Gubenfangxiao decoction (GBFXD) has been widely used in treating asthma remission stage for decades in the Jiangsu Province Hospital of Chinese Medicine, China. We previously demonstrated that GBFXD could downregulate the asthma susceptibility gene ORMDL3, a trigger of Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR).
AIM THIS STUDY:
To investigate the involvement of ER stress and UPR in the anti-inflammatory effects of GBFXD in Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)-OVA-induced asthma remission mice.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Mice were orally administered GBFXD at three doses for 30 days after an RSV-OVA challenge. The levels of inflammation mediators in serum were measured using a Luminex assay and the amount of IFN-γ in lung homogenates was detected using ELISA. The splenic CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes were counted using flow cytometric analysis. The mRNA and protein levels of asthma susceptibility gene ORMDL3, ER stress markers (BIP, CHOP), and three canonical UPR branches (PERK-eIF2a-ATF4, IRE1α-XBP1/IRE1α-JNK-AP1 and ATF6-SERCA2b signal pathways) were detected using real-time RT-PCR and western blot.
Histopathological analysis showed that the model group mice still exhibited a sustained airway inflammation even after suspending the OVA-challenge and RSV infections for 30 days. H&E staining results indicated that GBFXD could attenuate sustained airway inflammation. Decreased serum CXCL1 level and increased IFN-γ level in lung homogenate were observed after GBFXD treatment. Reductions in the number of splenic CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes were found after DEX treatment. We further confirmed the previous finding that GBFXD could downregulate the expression of ORMDL3. As a result of suppressed UPR, decreased ER stress markers and inhibited UPR branches (PERK and IRE1α signal pathway) were also observed through the significant reduction of signature mRNA and protein expressions after GBFXD treatment.
GBFXD can significantly attenuate RSV-OVA-induced persistent airway inflammation in murine asthma remission model. These effects may be mediated, at least partially, by inhibiting the activation of ER stress responses.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Asthma remission; ER stress; GuBenFangXiao decoction; Hesperidin (PubChem CID, 10621, CAS# 520-26-3); Liquiritin (PubChem CID, 503737, CAS# 551-15-5); Lobetyolin (PubChem CID, 6369123, CAS# 136085-37-5); Magnolin (PubChem CID, 169234, CAS# 31008-18-1); Prim-o-glucosylcimifugin (PubChem CID, 14034912, CAS# 80681-45-4); Schisandrol A (PubChem CID, 23915, CAS# 7432-28-2); Sustained airway inflammation; Unfolded protein response
Gu-Ben-Fang-Xiao decoction attenuates sustained airway inflammation by suppressing ER stress response in a murine asthma remission model of respiratory syncytial virus infection.
Lu Y1, Xu JY2, Zhang XH3, Zhao X4.
2016 Nov 4;
Hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis cause strong human suffering and necessitate a monetary burden worldwide. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of therapies. Pre-clinical animal models are indispensable in the drug discovery and development of new anti-fibrotic compounds and are immensely valuable for understanding and proofing the mode of their proposed action. In fibrosis research, inbreed mice and rats are by far the most used species for testing drug efficacy. During the last decades, several hundred or even a thousand different drugs that reproducibly evolve beneficial effects on liver health in respective disease models were identified. However, there are only a few compounds (e.g., GR-MD-02, GM-CT-01) that were translated from bench to bedside. In contrast, the large number of drugs successfully tested in animal studies is repeatedly tested over and over engender findings with similar or identical outcome. This circumstance undermines the 3R (Replacement, Refinement, Reduction) principle of Russell and Burch that was introduced to minimize the suffering of laboratory animals. This ethical framework, however, represents the basis of the new animal welfare regulations in the member states of the European Union. Consequently, the legal authorities in the different countries are halted to foreclose testing of drugs in animals that were successfully tested before. This review provides a synopsis on anti-fibrotic compounds that were tested in classical rodent models. Their mode of action, potential sources and the observed beneficial effects on liver health are discussed. This review attempts to provide a reference compilation for all those involved in the testing of drugs or in the design of new clinical trials targeting hepatic fibrosis.
hepatic fibrosis, 3R principle, therapy, animal experimentation, collagen, α-smooth muscle actin, clinical trials, translational medicine
Hepatoprotective and Anti-fibrotic Agents: It's Time to Take the Next Step
2016 Jan 7
Depression is becoming a major public health concern worldwide. Si-Ni-San (SNS) is a famous formula in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) with potent antidepressant effects. However, the antidepressant mechanism of SNS has not been clearly elucidated. This study was performed to verify whether the antidepressant effects of SNS were related to its anti-inflammatory effects, the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymatic activity. In our study, behavioral tests such as the forced swim test, sucrose preference test and open-field test were evaluated to ensure the establishment of depressive rats. The levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in the serum, liver, and hippocampus of rats were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Furthermore, the key proteins NF-κB, BDNF, and TrkB were analyzed by Western blot (WB) analysis in the hippocampus. In addition, CYP450 enzymatic activity analysis was performed using LC-MS/MS in conjunction with drug and statistics (DAS 3.0) after oral administration of six probe drugs. Our results showed that SNS attenuated reserpine-induced increases in IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α expression in the serum, liver, and hippocampus. The levels of NF-κB, BDNF, and TrkB in the hippocampus of depressive rats were also altered. According to the pharmacokinetic parameters, SNS had moderate inhibitory effects in the reserpine-induced depression model on CYP1A2, CYP2D1, CYP2E1, and CYP3A2, but no significant metabolic changes to CYP2C6 and CYP2D2. These findings suggested that SNS has a protective effect on reserpine-induced depressive rats, which may be related to the improvement of the inflammatory factors, the level of BDNF and the activity of CYP450 enzymes.
depression, reserpine, Si-Ni-San, anti-inflammation, CYP450 enzymes
Si-Ni-San Prevents Reserpine-Induced Depression by Inhibiting Inflammation and Regulating CYP450 Enzymatic Activity
Yang Zong,1,2,† Ting Chen,1,† Hongli Dong,1 Lijing Zhu,3 and Wenzheng Ju3,*
2020 Jan 17.
Liquiritin is a flavonoid isolated from Glycyrrhiza, acts as an antioxidant and has neuroprotective, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activity.