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Influenza B strains represent on average 23% of all circulating strains in Europe and when there is a vaccine mismatch on B strains, additional influenza-related hospitalizations and deaths as well as substantial additional costs are observed. The objective was to estimate the public health and economic impact of seasonal influenza vaccination with quadrivalent influenza vaccines (QIV) compared to trivalent influenza vaccines (TIV) in Europe (EU).
Based on data from 5 EU countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain and UK) during 10 influenza seasons from 2002 to 2013, epidemiological and associated economic outcomes were estimated for each season for the actual scenario where the TIV was used, and for a hypothetical scenario where QIV could have been used instead.
By using QIV, this study estimated that for the 5 EU countries, an additional 1.03 million (327.9/100,000 inhabitants) influenza cases, 453,000 (143.9/100,000) general practitioners consultations, 672,000 (213.1/100,000) workdays lost, 24,000 (7.7/100,000) hospitalizations and 10,000 (3.1/100,000) deaths could have been avoided compared to the use of TIV over the 10-seasons-period. This study estimates that QIV can be of economic value since from a societal perspective 15 million Euros would have been saved on general practitioners consultations (14 million Euros from third-party payer perspective), 77 million on hospitalizations (74 million Euros from third-party payer perspective) and 150 million Euros on workdays lost, across the 5 EU countries.
In conclusion, the present study estimates that, compared to TIV, QIV may result in a substantial decrease in epidemiological burden and in influenza-related costs.
epidemiology, Europe, immunization programs, influenza vaccines, public health
Public health and economic impact of seasonal influenza vaccination with quadrivalent influenza vaccines compared to trivalent influenza vaccines in Europe
Mathieu Uhart,a Helene Bricout,b Emilie Clay,c and Nathalie Largerona
Echinostoma caproni (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) is an intestinal trematode that has been extensively used as experimental model to investigate the factors determining the expulsion of intestinal helminths or, in contrast, the development of chronic infections. Herein, we analyze the changes in protein expression induced by E. caproni infection in ICR mice, a host of high compatibility in which the parasites develop chronic infections.
To determine the changes in protein expression, a two-dimensional DIGE approach using protein extracts from the intestine of na?ve and infected mice was employed; and spots showing significant differential expression were analyzed by mass spectrometry. A total of 37 spots were identified differentially expressed in infected mice (10 were found to be over-expressed and 27 down-regulated). These proteins were related to the restoration of the intestinal epithelium and the control of homeostatic dysregulation, concomitantly with mitochondrial and cytoskeletal proteins among others.
Our results suggests that changes in these processes in the ileal epithelium of ICR mice may facilitate the establishment of the parasite and the development of chronic infections. These results may serve to explain the factors determining the development of chronicity in intestinal helminth infection.
Altered Protein Expression in the Ileum of Mice Associated with the Development of Chronic Infections with Echinostoma caproni (Trematoda)
Alba Cortes, 1 Javier Sotillo, 1 , 2 Carla MuNoz-Antoli, 1 Bernard Fried, 3 J. Guillermo Esteban, 1 and Rafael Toledo 1 ,*
We show that over-representation of sequences in aptamer libraries and deep sequencing enables acyclic identification of aptamers. We demonstrated this by isolating a known family of aptamers for human ?-thrombin. Aptamers were found within a library containing an average of 56,000 copies of each possible randomized 15mer segment. The high affinity sequences were counted many times above the background in 2?6 million reads. Clustering analysis of sequences with more than 10 counts distinguished two sequence motifs with candidates at high abundance. Motif I contained the previously observed consensus 15mer, Thb1 (46,000 counts), and related variants with mostly G/T substitutions; secondary analysis showed that affinity for thrombin correlated with abundance (Kd?=?12 nM for Thb1). The signal-to-noise ratio for this experiment was roughly 10,000?1 for Thb1. Motif II was unrelated to Thb1 with the leading candidate (29,000 counts) being a novel aptamer against hexose sugars in the storage and elution buffers for Concanavilin A (Kd?=?0.5 碌M for ?-methyl-mannoside); ConA was used to immobilize ?-thrombin.
Construction and Analysis of the Protein-Protein Interaction Networks Based on Gene Expression Profiles of Parkinson's Disease
Hindol Rakshit, 1 Nitin Rathi, 2 and Debjani Roy 3 , *