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504.3±23.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:61448-03-1) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
We analysed the interplay between the cpSecY, cpSRP54 and the chloroplast-encoded cytochrome b6 via isolation of chloroplast ribosome nascent chain complexes and the use of cross-linking factors, antibodies and mass spectroscopy analyses. We showed that the cytochrome b6 nascent polypeptide complex is tightly associated with ribosomes and that the translation of cytochrome b6 was discontinuous. The causes of ribosome pausing and the functional significance of this phenomenon may be related to proper protein folding, insertion into thylakoid membranes and the association of cofactors during this process. It was also found that cpSecY was not in the vicinity of cytochrome b6 intermediates during the elongation process and does not act with mature cytochrome b6 after translation. Using the approach of cross-linking during elongation of the cytochrome b6 protein, we showed that cpSRP54 interacts strongly with the elongating nascent chain.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10863-014-9598-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Cytochrome b6, Membrane protein, Thylakoid membrane, RNC, cpSecY, cpSRP54
Ribosome nascent chain complexes of the chloroplast-encoded cytochrome b6 thylakoid membrane protein interact with cpSRP54 but not with cpSecY
Małgorzata Piskozub, Bo?ena Kroliczewska, and Jarosław Kroliczewskicorresponding author
Steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) are recommended for the treatment of heart failure (HF) and resistant hypertension, both common comorbidities in patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study explored the clinical characteristics of, and steroidal MRA use in, patients with CKD with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and/or HF.
This retrospective cohort study used PharMetrics Plus US claims database data (October 2009-September 2014) to identify two patient populations aged ≥18 years with a first diagnosis of CKD or a first prescription for steroidal MRAs. Demographic characteristics, comorbidities, clinical events, medication use and healthcare costs were reported by population and stratified by diagnosis: CKD, CKD + T2D (DKD), CKD + HF and DKD + HF. The CKD population cohorts were further stratified by steroidal MRA treatment duration (no MRAs, < 6 and ≥ 6 months’ treatment). Results The CKD and MRA populations comprised 229,004 patients and 5899 patients, respectively. Median age and the proportion of men were similar in the CKD and MRA populations across disease cohorts. Disease burden increased across the cohorts as comorbidity and clinical event incidences increased. Hypertension was reported in 70-92% of patients, irrespective of disease cohort or population. In the CKD population, MRA use was low but increased with disease burden: CKD, 1.2%; DKD, 1.8%; CKD + HF, 6.5%; and DKD + HF, 6.6%. Moreover, MRA users presented with higher rates of comorbidities and medication use, and higher healthcare costs than MRA non-users. Longer MRA treatment duration was associated with reduced polypharmacy, lower event rates and lower healthcare costs. In the MRA population, patients almost exclusively received spironolactone (≥ 96%; median dose across all groups 25 mg; one-year persistence, ≤ 43%); up to 16% of patients had end-stage renal disease at baseline despite steroidal MRAs being contraindicated. Conclusions Steroidal MRA use was low across all cohorts, but increased with disease severity, driven particularly by HF. Steroidal MRAs were used in patients with advanced CKD, despite being contraindicated. The persistent morbidity and clinical event rates in CKD and DKD patients highlight the disease burden and the need for treatments that effectively target both cardio-vascular and kidney-related events. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s12882-019-1348-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Chronic kidney disease, Type 2 diabetes, Heart failure, Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, Real-world treatment patterns
Patient characteristics and initiation of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in patients with chronic kidney disease in routine clinical practice in the US: a retrospective cohort study
Michael Blankenburg,corresponding author1 Anne-Kathrin Fett,2 Seline Eisenring,3 Gabriele Haas,2 and Alain Gay4
The aim of this work was to determine if the self-heating pasteurization procedure is technically applicable to the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus. Firstly the substrates alone (corncob, Pangola grass and a mixture of both ingredients with wood shavings) were tested. Two supplementation trials were then undertaken using soybean, wheat bran, sheep manure, sesame seed, black bean and chia. Highest production values (BE = 176.3% and Y = 26.6 kg/m2) were obtained using a 9% supplement, with a formula consisting of 25% each of soybean, black bean, wheat bran and chia, added at spawning and at casing. These results were comparable to those obtained with the Phase II compost traditionally used for A. bisporus cultivation.
Portobello, Substrate preparation, Button mushroom, Mushroom cultivation
Agaricus bisporus production on substrates pasteurized by self-heating
Stephania Colmenares-Cruz,1 Jose E. Sanchez,corresponding author2 and Javier Valle-Mora2