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To estimate the effects of weather conditions on welfare globally, cross-country comparisons need to rely on international poverty lines and comparable data sources at the micro-level. To this end, nationally representative household surveys can offer a useful instrument, also at the sub-national level. This study seeks to expand the existing knowledge on the determinants of poverty in Africa south of the Sahara (SSA), examining how long-term climatic conditions and year-specific weather shocks affect expenditure per capita. We take advantage of a novel and unique dataset combining consumption-based household surveys for 24 SSA countries -representative of more than half of the African population and two thirds of SSA- and geospatial information on agro-climatic conditions, market access and other spatial covariates of poverty. To our knowledge, it is the first time that a welfare-based, multidisciplinary, micro-level dataset with such wide spatial coverage has been assembled and examined. Our analysis relies on a linear and spatial model at the household- and district-level, respectively, both controlling for socio-economic, demographic, and geographic confounding factors. Results are consistent across econometric approaches, showing that living in more humid areas is positively associated with welfare, while the opposite occurs living in hotter areas, as existing literature shows. Flood shocks -defined as annual rainfall higher than one standard deviation from the 50-year average- are associated to a 35% decrease in total and food per-capita consumption and 17 percentage point increase in extreme poverty. On the other hand, extreme shortages of rain and heat shocks show an uncertain effect, even when estimates control for spatial correlation between welfare and weather conditions using the spatial error correction model. Given the heterogeneous effects of climatic events across SSA macro-regions, local-specific adaptation and mitigation strategies are suggested to help bringing households on a sustainable path.
Mapping, Poverty, Climate change, Weather shocks, Sub-Saharan Africa, Spatial models
Climate and poverty in Africa South of the Sahara
Carlo Azzarria,⁎ and Sara Signorellib
Accumulating evidence indicates noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) fine-tune gene expression with mysterious machinery. We conducted a combination of mRNA, miRNA, circRNA, LncRNA microarray analyses on 10 adults’ lumbar discs. Moreover, we performed additional global exploration on RNA interacting machinery in terms of in silico computational pipeline. Here we show the landscape of RNAs in human lumbar discs. In general, the RNA-abundant landscape comprises 14,635 mRNAs (37.93%), 2,059 miRNAs (5.34%), 18,995 LncRNAs (49.23%) and 2,894 (7.5%) circRNAs. Chromosome 1 contributes for RNA transcription at most (10%). Bi-directional transcription contributes evenly for RNA biogenesis, in terms of 5′ to 3′ and 3′ to 5′. Despite the majority of circRNAs are exonic, antisense (1.49%), intergenic (0.035%), intragenic (1.69%), and intronic (6.29%) circRNAs should not be ignored. A single miRNA could interact with a multitude of circRNAs. Notably, CDR1as or ciRS-7 harbors 66 consecutive binding sites for miR-7-5p (previous miR-7), evidencing our pipeline. The majority of binding sites are perfect-matched (78.95%). Collectively, global landscape of RNAs sheds novel insights on RNA interacting mechanisms in human intervertebral disc degeneration.
noncoding RNAs, miRNAs, circRNAs, gene regulation, RNA transcription
Landscape of RNAs in human lumbar disc degeneration
Ping-Heng Lan,#1,11 Zhi-Heng Liu,#2 Yan-Jun Pei,1 Zhi-Gang Wu,3,4 Yang Yu,5,6 Yong-Feng Yang,7 Xu Liu,8 Lu Che,8 Chi-Jiao Ma,9 Yan-Ke Xie,8 Qing-Jie Hu,8 Zhong-Yuan Wan,10 and Hai-Qiang Wang1
2016 Sep 27;
Organophosphorus pesticides are widely used throughout the world. Because of their ease of availability, organophosphorus compounds are commonly used for self-poisoning in developing countries. The acute effects of exposure to organophosphorus pesticides are well known, but the chronic effects are unclear. Recent studies suggest that abnormalities of the central and peripheral nervous systems persisted for up to 5 years after acute poisoning due to a single large dose of organophosphates (OPs). However, the long-term effects on cardiovascular diseases are poorly understood.
An OPs-exposed cohort (N = 7,561) and an age- and gender-matched control cohort (N = 30,244), both identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database, were compared. We utilized the multivariable Cox proportional model to estimate the risks of developing arrhythmia, coronary artery disease (CAD) and congestive heart failure (CHF). The patients with acute poisoning from OPs had higher incidence rates of arrhythmia (5.89 vs. 3.61 per 1,000 person-years), CAD (9.10 vs. 6.88 per 1,000 person-years), and CHF (3.89 vs. 2.98 per 1,000 person-years) compared with that of the non-OPs poisoning cohort, with a crude subhazard ratio (SHR) of 1.40, 1.13, and 1.12, respectively. Additionally, a significantly higher risk of arrhythmia was observed in the OPs poisoning cohort (adjusted SHR = 1.25) compared with the non-OPs poisoning cohort, particularly in male patients (adjusted SHR = 1.33) and those under 49 years of age (adjusted SHR = 3.16). After accounting for the competing risks of death, there was a higher risk of arrhythmia and CAD during a three year follow-up period (adjusted SHR = 1.50 for arrhythmia; adjusted SHR = 1.10 for CAD). We also found an adjusted SHR of 1.36 associated with developing CHF after 6 years of follow-up for OPs poisoning cohort.
Acute OPs poisoning may continuously impact human health through mechanisms that are unclear. Any supportive measurements that could contribute to a reduction in the risk of heart disease may be beneficial in cases of OPs poisoning survivors.
The Long-Term Effects of Organophosphates Poisoning as a Risk Factor of CVDs: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study
Dong-Zong Hung,# 1 , 2 Hao-Jan Yang,# 3 , 4 Yu-Fen Li,# 5 Cheng-Li Lin, 2 , 6 Shih-Yu Chang, 3 , 4 ,* Fung-Chang Sung, 7 and Sally C. W. Tai 1