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Combining two high-performance materials—ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC) as the matrix and carbon-fibre-reinforced composites (CFRP) as the reinforcement—opens up new possibilities for achieving very lightweight thin-walled concrete elements. This strategy, however, leads to a higher degree of material utilisation, resulting in the generation of higher forces around load introduction points and supports. The authors present a solution for increasing the performance of supports of very slender CFRP-reinforced UHPC beams by using metal implants. Implants are used in place of concrete in regions of stress concentrations and significant deviation forces. These are able to transfer high stresses and forces efficiently due to their ability to sustain both tension and compression in equal measure. A key issue in their development is the interface between the reinforced concrete and metal implant. Building on previous research, this paper deals with the conceptual design of three types of implants manufactured from different metals and with three different types of automated production technologies (water-jet cutting, metal casting with a 3D-printed plastic formwork and binder jetting of steel components). For this paper, tests were carried out to determine the load-bearing behaviour of beams with the three different types of support implants used for load introduction at the supports. A carbon rod served as bending reinforcement and a pre-formed textile reinforcement cage served as shear and constructive reinforcement.
UHPC, CFRP, CFRP reinforcement, thin-walled concrete, load introduction in thin-walled concrete elements, metal implants for engineering structures, sustainable construction
Second-Generation Implants for Load Introduction into Thin-Walled CFRP-Reinforced UHPC Beams: Implant Optimisation and Investigations of Production Technologies
Benjamin Kromoser,1,* Oliver Gericke,2 Mathias Hammerl,1 and Werner Sobek2
Porphyromonas gingivalis, the keystone pathogen in chronic periodontitis, was identified in the brain of Alzheimer’s disease patients. Toxic proteases from the bacterium called gingipains were also identified in the brain of Alzheimer’s patients, and levels correlated with tau and ubiquitin pathology. Oral P. gingivalis infection in mice resulted in brain colonization and increased production of Aβ1-42, a component of amyloid plaques. Further, gingipains were neurotoxic in vivo and in vitro, exerting detrimental effects on tau, a protein needed for normal neuronal function. To block this neurotoxicity, we designed and synthesized small-molecule inhibitors targeting gingipains. Gingipain inhibition reduced the bacterial load of an established P. gingivalis brain infection, blocked Aβ1-42 production, reduced neuroinflammation, and rescued neurons in the hippocampus. These data suggest that gingipain inhibitors could be valuable for treating P. gingivalis brain colonization and neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s disease.
Porphyromonas gingivalis in Alzheimer’s disease brains: Evidence for disease causation and treatment with small-molecule inhibitors
Stephen S. Dominy,1,*† Casey Lynch,1,* Florian Ermini,1 Malgorzata Benedyk,2,3 Agata Marczyk,2 Andrei Konradi,1 Mai Nguyen,1 Ursula Haditsch,1 Debasish Raha,1 Christina Griffin,1 Leslie J. Holsinger,1 Shirin Arastu-Kapur,1 Samer Kaba,1 Alexander Lee,1 Mark I. Ryder,4 Barbara Potempa,5 Piotr Mydel,2,6 Annelie Hellvard,3,6 Karina Adamowicz,2 Hatice Hasturk,7,8 Glenn D. Walker,9 Eric C. Reynolds,9 Richard L. M. Faull,10 Maurice A. Curtis,11,12 Mike Dragunow,11,13 and Jan Potempa2,5,*
This article presents the current and important results of bioaerosol studies which allow for the comparison of microbial contamination of air in 11 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), which differed in terms of capacity from 350 to 200,000 m3/day. The abundance of mesophilic bacteria, M+ and M− Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Actinobacteria, coliform and psychrophilic bacteria, and microscopic fungi was determined. Additionally, the air temperature, relative humidity, wind velocity, and direction were also analyzed at each research station. The obtained very numerous results of bioaerosol and climate parameter studies were subjected to statistical analysis. The results regarding the minimum, maximum, and median abundance of the studied bacteria and microscopic fungi at 11 WWTPs and in background studies at control stations were presented in tables. Additionally, basic descriptive statistics for all studied microorganisms at specific seasons were presented. It was established that at the areas of WWTPs, the microscopic fungi were present that the highest concentrations (ranging from 0 to 1,148,530 CFU m−3), followed by psychrophilic bacteria (ranging from 40 to 225,000 CFU m−3) and mesophilic bacteria (ranging from 0 to 195,000 CFU m−3). The novel elaboration of bioaerosol study results based on cluster analysis and determination of a dendrogram allowed to compare the studied WWTPs. The similarity was decided based on the type of studied microorganisms and their dominance and abundance, while no similarities were observed in terms of capacity. In order to investigate the relation between the abundance of bacterial groups as well as microscopic fungi and microclimatic parameters (air temperature and humidity), a calculation of Spearman’s range correlation coefficients was conducted.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (10.1007/s10661-018-7035-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Bioaerosols, Air contamination, Wastewater treatment plants, Emission factor, Statistical analysis
Comparison of wastewater treatment plants based on the emissions of microbiological contaminants
Michał Michałkiewiczcorresponding author